Strategic goal - Milan Krajnc
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Strategic objective

Although the project has a concrete goal, it is not yet certain that we will achieve it. It often happens
that we fail earlier or lose ourselves too much. Therefore it is necessary to set milestones or key points
by which we measure whether we are on the right track.

In companies the owners define goals through vision, strategy and mission. The analysis of Manager
Association from September 2005 showed that 78% of a sample of 207 interviewed directors have a
defined vision and strategy of the organization. If we were then to ask these directors whether they
could present us with a t.i. “Strategic Development Program for the next 5 to 7 years”, the percentage
of positive answers would be much lower.
The fact is that the owners are still satisfied with the simply written objectives of the company through
the vision and strategy, and they do not order the operational program through the projects because
the awareness of the owners is probably too low. not mature enough.

 

The main task of the t.i. “Strategic Development Program” is to enable the company, based on a
detailed analysis of the business activity of the last 3 to 5 years and data on the development of the
sales and purchase markets, to define not only the vision and strategy, but also clearly defined
strategic goals to be realized through

the projects. The literature suggests that corporate strategies are
realized by projects. In telecommunications it is common practice to replace almost all the technology within 5 years, so it makes sense to prepare development programs somewhere between 5 and 7 years, while
in the energy sector the shortest reasonable period is at least 10 to 15 years, as the projects themselves usually have a duration of 5 to 7 years. We achieve larger and more important strategic goals through projects. The strategic goals are derived from the strategy. Strategies are the way to achieve goals. For smaller projects it is sufficient to make an initial record of the project and define the minimum elements (vision, strategy, goal and purpose, implementation tactics, key events, project organization, key success factors, resources, project cash flow, IT and funding). In case of larger, longer or more risky projects, we prepare a project start plan, which, in addition to the elements of the initial record, includes the definition of cross-project integration, success factors, ensuring optimal project implementation procedures, identified risks and solution, conditions for project implementation, In case of strategically important projects, where we realize the strategic goals of the company, we usually advise the owners, before preparing a project (initial start-up or start-up plan), to draw up a socalled strategic project development plan in the company, in which we define strategic development areas and establish different strategies in each area (products, organization, personnel, development, technology, promotion, vertical and horizontal communication, financing, placing the product/service on the demand market, comprehensive customer management, etc.)).

So what are the strategic goals of this project?
The PMBOOK-Guide therefore identified the t.i. “Project Scope Management” – the process leading to
the project goals, which distinguishes:

  • The PMBOOK Guide therefore identified the t.i. "Project Scope Management" - the process leading to the project goals, which distinguishes
  • Scope Planning (clear written definition of the objectives as a basis for future project definitions)
  • Scope Definition (breakdown of the main objective into smaller, manageable objectives, objective and purpose, intermediate objective, etc.)
  • Scope Verification (confirmation of the objectives by the client, administrator, principal)
  • Scope Change Control.

That is why it is important from the very beginning that all three (the owner, the trustee and the
project manager) look at exactly the same picture and all see a forest with fifty-two spruces and eight
larches and in the middle a stream that flows down a very narrow riverbed into the lake.

But that is not enough. When a project manager has a big picture in front of him, it is his job to make
it happen. Sam? Hart. He has to find people around him with whom he can achieve the final goal, all
(strategic) intermediate goals and all objective and goal-oriented goals. But not everyone is equally
capable. The composition of the project team should be such that we will have a team that knows
attack, defense and tactics and is well aware of the opponent’s weaknesses. There are very few players
in the world who score goals. And the project manager has to find them if he wants to score goals. He
usually always has the “same” group at his disposal, he is rarely allowed to “hire” players from outside.

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»Given the clearly defined goals of the project, it is more important to find a group of people who can achieve these goals.«.

Example:

A medium-sized company in Slovenia has a well-prepared “Strategic Development Program for twelve
years in advance”, which defines all strategic projects, SWOT analysis for each of them, sets the main
objectives by time periods and provides a financial structure that can be partly completed with own and partly with loans. As the company has a high credit rating and a high reputation in the region, the
banks compete with them for loans. The only embarrassing thing is that most of the management is about to retire and only a fifth of the young people have been laid off in recent years. There are too few project managers to achieve all the strategic goals set. Since they have almost a monopoly position, they were in no hurry, not even in terms of staff training. Due to the conservatism of the management, hiring project managers is also out of the question. What is to be done? It is necessary to find “managers” within the company. People with a leadership personality, conflict-free and goaloriented, and with a high degree of company affiliation. You have not heard of HRM. Lately, however, they have tried to understand that it is not enough to have a project management policy, a project office and training on real projects and that management works in the old-fashioned way. The process. The process. The Process. Yes, what do the goals have to do with the process? Enough or nothing. How do you take. When they realized that they had to “bring in” their competencies into projects, things
went in the right direction. Today they are already breathing easier, although line managers
(occasionally) still look down on project managers.

At a certain point in time, the company is in a phase of transition from a functional organization to a
process organization, and in addition, the company has several projects every month. How can these
matters be handled?

It is possible:

  • a development strategy that must clearly state that the company will be restructured in three years to implement all nine strategic projects, while ensuring the expected growth each year (as requested by the owners) and managing the costs that must account for half of the company's growth. Would you be able to do that?
  • by renewing operational procedures (basic and support processes), through which we prepare the company to take on strategic challenges, projects,
  • by adapting ERP and BIS, which have to support new processes,
  • through reorganization in the sense of optimizing business processes,
  • clearly defined goals with HRM and CRM and a group that will build up both areas in three years

Even today, company managers still make the classic mistake:

  • because they subordinate IT to human resources or finance,
  • they organize their business in the general sector (or human resources), as they are responsible for systematization
  • Nobody deals with the processes anyway, except one month before the recertification of ISO9001: 2000, maybe even ISO14000, and then most companies (with no exceptions, have not yet arrived).
Strategic goal - Milan Krajnc

That is why I advise it:
1. only set strategic goals once you have prepared the company for these challenges.
2 When you run “projects” in a company, you should be aware that this is a parallel branch of
government and business.
3. not everyone is a “project manager”.
4. as long as the project teams do not receive at least the same services from the support processes
(purchasing, sales, accounting, finance, information technology, human resources, security, education
and training, perhaps even from the project office, office operations, etc.) as the sectors, services in the
existing organizational scheme, no projects will go ahead.
5. set up a workplace optimization, determine the real intellectual value of the employees and give
them appropriate tasks
6. find a critical mass of employees in the company who are able to manage projects (do not work on
projects, but manage them as managers) Directors make the biggest mistake when they declare
themselves as managers of one or even several projects in addition to the duties of a director. Then
everything comes to a standstill, even regular business.
7. create a really useful support environment for project management (especially an organizational unit
that supports projects of project office baking, project controlling, process management, organization
and business informatics) Create a clear and strong support environment for vertical and horizontal
communication (you can use Microsoft technologies like Share Point Portal and MS, and Project Server
Portal is welcome for more projects and more employees.
8. above all, train people and give them skills.

The driver in the passenger seat or even the back seat can still only watch the driver while driving.

Strategic goals are, so to speak, the points with which we check whether we are on the right track. We
never simply compare the amount of work done, but rather whether we have spent the planned
amount of money, whether we have met all deadlines, whether the planned amount of material has
been used, whether the communication channels have worked as planned, whether all personnel
resources have been involved, whether we have acted with foresight … in short, we have to check all
the parameters we originally planned. So the strategic goals could be divided into several parts, or.
each area must have its own strategic goal (e.g. Strategic Human Resources goal – to train 10 experts
in the field of maintenance of Windows information systems by the end of the year).


Achieving one strategic goal is actually the first step of the next strategic goal. The project has several
strategic goals, separated by content and deadlines. When achieving each strategic goal, it is always
necessary to check whether the next goal can be achieved, whether sufficient financial means are
planned, whether sufficient human and material resources are available. Before we continue with the
implementation of the strategy, it is necessary to check whether we are on the right track and it is
necessary to compare the strategic goals directly with the final goals, we must constantly measure the
deviations, if there are any. If there are deviations, it is necessary to change the strategy, trying to keep
the strategic objectives the same, but almost certainly we must not deviate from the final objective.
The final goal is always determined by the client (owner of the capital) and the strategic goals are
determined by the contractor.


Literature:
1 Glasser, William (1994). Control Theory or How to Establish Effective Control about your life.
Ljubljana: Taxus 2. William Glasser, 1999: Choice Theory – A New Psychology from Personal Freedom,
Perennial, The William Glasser Institute 3. Project Management Institute (2000 edition), A Guide to the
Project Management Body of Knowledge, PMBOOK Guide, 2000 edition 4. International Project
Management Association, ICB IPMA Competence Baseline, Version 2.0

 

Avtor - Milan Krajnc

Author of the article: pedagogue, entrepreneur & crisis manager
I teach you to look “at yourself” as a third person. For more information or an introductory meeting, write to me at official@milankrajnc.com

Risk on projects - Milan Krajnc
CategoriesLatest posts

Risk in projects

When planning and implementing a project, we try to identify and reduce the risk that threatens the project. The plan takes into account potential risk factors, and in carrying out the project we try to select the appropriate project participants, to manage and motivate them properly and to communicate well with them. By monitoring the project, we determine whether there are any deviations in the project from the actual and planned values. Then we take action as quickly as possible and implement the necessary corrective measures. A final analysis of the project progress is
also useful, providing us with valuable information for managing future projects.

“In today’s world, there are many projects that fail to achieve their goals. The reasons for this are largely due to deviations between actual and planned events. Planned events often fail to materialize because of a series of unforeseeable or only partially foreseeable disruptions. There is therefore always the risk that things will actually turn out differently than we had planned. It is therefore important that we make every effort to achieve the goals we have set ourselves at all stages of the work process. However, a thorough risk assessment plays a very important role in following up what has been planned. People in life face decisions every day that are more or less important. Decisions are present everywhere – at home and at work, in commercial and non-commercial institutions, in production lines and in projects. In the strictest sense, decision making is a choice between several different alternatives. For companies to be successful, it is extremely important that they make the right decisions, especially today when change is part of our daily lives. Since our information is never perfect and since our knowledge is limited, there is always the possibility that when we make a decision, we do not choose the one that brings the best results “(McCray, Purvis, McCray, 2002, p. 49).

Therefore, all decisions involve a certain amount of risk, which cannot be completely avoided despite
all efforts. Risk is the probability of adverse effects of future events. Sometimes this risk is high, sometimes negligible. The greater the risk, the more important it becomes to be aware of it and to try
to manage it. The risk is lower for repetitive decisions and activities where certain permanent solutions
occur over time. The level of security increases slightly with each repetition, and the risk of not achieving the objectives decreases. Over time, practitioners gain valuable experience and knowledge and refine their skills so that they can perform a routine activity better, faster and cheaper next time.

For one-off activities, such as projects, the risk is much higher because we make most decisions for the first time and the situation is completely new and unknown to us. We have no concrete experience and we learn on the fly during the course of the project. The probability of choosing the wrong alternative is higher, and the consequences of such a wrong decision are often fatal for the whole project. Risk mitigation is therefore crucial for projects and a necessary part of project management.

Risk on projects - Milan Krajnc

Well-thought-out risk management makes it possible to reduce project delays, lower project costs and improve the quality of the final impact of the project. Achieving project goals then has an indirect effect on increasing the business performance of the entire organization.

A distinction must be made between large and small projects, which have some different characteristics, and there are also differences between projects from different economic or noneconomic sectors. The risk in projects is high and reducing it is extremely important, but it differs slightly between different types of projects. There is a risk that we have misjudged some factors. However, the error of assessment can be reduced by taking the risk into account when planning the
project, for which there are several methods. The PERT critical path method and its newer and slightly improved version, the GERT method (Heizer und Render, 1988, pp. 672-673) are certainly well known. When planning and implementing a project, we try to identify and reduce the risk that threatens the project. The plan takes into account potential risk factors, and in carrying out the project we try to
select suitable project participants, to manage and motivate them properly and to communicate well with them. By monitoring the project, we determine whether there are any deviations in the project from the actual and planned values. Then we take action as quickly as possible and implement the necessary corrective measures. A final analysis of the project progress is also useful, providing us with
valuable information for managing future projects.

Risk can be described as the probability of undesired consequences of future events. It can also be
described as a hazard, the possibility of a negative consequence or loss, the threat of inconvenience
and the like. This definition covers only a negative view of risk, although every risk also has certain
positive characteristics. It is a well-known fact in economic theory that a higher risk also allows a higher
return. An old proverb says that the greater the risk, the greater the reward (Clarke, Varma, 1999, p. 414).

Project risk is any event that prevents or limits the achievement of the project objectives. Project risk can be divided into many types according to various criteria. The most common one is the classification of project risk according to its relation to project objectives, separating time risk, financial risk and risk related to the quality of project impact. A distinction can also be made between indirect (subordinate) and direct (superior) project risk, where it is a possibility to influence the project objectives, and the time sequence in which these two types of risk occur.

The risk is addressed by many authors in their works. Burke defines risk management in projects as a process of identifying, analyzing, and responding to uncertainty (1999, pp. 229-235). Lientz and Rea present risk management in projects as the management of unresolved contentious issues that need to be resolved so that the project does not deviate four times from actual planning (1999, pp. 8 and 9). Kerzner also deals with risk in projects, as he believes that in every project we have to answer the question of what may prevent us from achieving the project goals and thus prepare for various uncertain developments (2001, p. 564). Like the project management process, the project risk management process can be divided into three phases – planning, implementing, and controlling strategies to reduce project risk.

 

Risk on projects - Milan Krajnc

The main task of project management is to achieve the set objectives of the project in all phases of the managed process. The success of the project is assessed in terms of achieving these goals. The main objectives, to which project management is directed, are the following (Kerzner, 1979, p. 318): time, costs, quality of project effects. In addition to these three goals, there is the goal of sufficient security in the project (Bonyuet, 2001, p. 49), which is actually only a condition for the achievement of the three basic goals and is not a goal in itself. Ideally, the project manager would be able to balance all three goals in the project. In reality, however, this is difficult, so that in project work the center of gravity of the triangle is often not reached. However, it is important that the project manager tries to get as close as possible to it. It has sometimes been thought that in different phases of the life cycle of a project, the meaning of the individual goals changes. Quality should come first, then cost and finally time. However, recent research has shown that this is not the case. Quality and time should be a more important objective than cost throughout the life of the project (Meredith, Mantel, 2000, p. 14).

However, as we start to implement the project and it approaches the end point, the project risk or the probability that the project objectives will not be achieved also decreases. Therefore, during the course of the project, new estimates of duration, cost and quality are often made at certain project intervals. In a similar way, Burke also describes the change in risk level in a project. In the beginning, the risk is greatest because much about the project is still unknown. However, as the project progresses and more decisions are made, the number of unknown variables decreases. At the end of the project, nothing is unknown anymore. Contrary to the decreasing risk level, the amount of invested funds exposed to risk increases continuously during the project.

By controlling the project we can discover the consequences of the realized risk, and by planning and executing the project we can reduce the probability of realization and the consequences of the project risk. No matter how much effort we invest in planning, implementation and control of a project, there
is always some risk in the way the project works. The future is unknown, and many undesirable events can occur in it, which represents various forms of risk. Sometimes we also deliberately maintain a certain risk. An integral part of project management is decision making, which is a methodical part of the management process. It is present in the planning, implementation and control of projects. One of the key components of project management is decision-making under conditions of uncertainty with the aim of balancing different types of risks associated with a particular problem. In the strictest sense, decision making is a choice between several different alternatives. People in life make decisions every
day and strive for efficiency. It is extremely important for the success and satisfaction of people as well as for the success of associations that they make the right decisions. In reality, most decisions are based on incomplete information and limited knowledge, so there is always the possibility that when we make a decision, we may not choose the one that would give the best results among the many options. So often the consequences of decisions are less favorable than one might imagine.

We say that we take risks when we make decisions. Sometimes this risk is high, sometimes negligible. The greater the risk, the more important it becomes to be aware of it and to try to control it. The risk is lower for repetitive decisions and activities where there are permanent solutions over time. The level of security increases slightly with each repetition and the risk of not achieving the objectives decreases. Over time, practitioners gain valuable experience and refine their skills so that they can perform a routine activity better, faster and cheaper next time. For one-off activities, such as projects, the risk is much higher because we make most decisions for the first time and the situation is unknown to us. We have no concrete experience and we learn on the fly during the project. The probability of choosing the wrong alternative is higher, and the consequences of such a wrong decision are often fatal for the whole project. Risk reduction is therefore a necessary part of project management.

The risk can be reduced by the project management process, especially by planning or thinking ahead. If the project manager is aware of the risks involved in the projects and if he takes them into account in the project plan, he ensures a higher probability of achieving the project goals. By carefully planning
who, when, and by what means has to carry out an individual activity, he or she reduces the risk of delays, insufficient resources, or a particular activity not being carried out. Good planning avoids unnecessary traffic jams and allows you to choose the best route. The planning process also provides a suitable basis for project control. When carrying out a project, the project manager must follow a plan that is flexible enough to accommodate any necessary changes. He or she must familiarize the project participants well with the project goals so that they understand them and are therefore more motivated to achieve them. He can also reduce risk by constantly monitoring the progress of the project. By comparing what is planned and implemented, it can identify possible deviations and take
timely action.

Risk on projects - Milan Krajnc

Risk can be described as the probability of undesired consequences of future events. It can also be described as a hazard, the possibility of a negative consequence or loss, the threat of inconvenience and the like. This definition covers only a negative view of risk, although every risk also has certain positive characteristics. It is a well-known fact in economic theory that a higher risk also allows a higher return. An old saying says that the greater the risk, the greater the reward (Clarke, Varma, 1999, p. 414).

So if there is a risk, there can also be an opportunity. In addition to the possibility of a greater reward, risk also brings with it the possibility of a greater loss associated with accepting a particular decision. The level of risk is acceptable if the potential gains exceed the potential losses. Each decision-maker must choose the most appropriate risk/reward ratio. If he is risk-averse, he will be prepared to accept it on a larger scale to ensure the possibility of a higher return or greater benefit. However, if the decision maker is not risk-averse, he will accept a smaller and more certain return. Some authors distinguish between risk and uncertainty. Uncertainty should arise when a person does not have sufficient
information to assess the likelihood of alternative solutions. However, risk should be a situation in which alternative solutions and probabilities can be determined that individual solutions will produce the desired result (Kavčič et al., 1994, pp. 223-225). We speak of risk when we can predict the results of business decisions with a certain probability distribution, and of uncertainty when this is not possible
(Prašnikar, Debeljak, 1998, p. 36; Kerzner, 2001, p. 908-913). Risk consists of two elements – the probability that something will happen and the negative consequences or losses that will follow if it does happen (Moder, Phillips, 1964, p. 196). In institutions, there is often a possibility that things will not go as planned. The probability of such an unfavorable development can be very high or very low.
The consequences of the risk can also be small or extensive or even fatal. As an example I can mention a project to build a new hotel, where there is a likelihood that there will be difficulties in obtaining a building permit. So there is also the possibility of negative consequences. It is possible that the hotel will be built with a delay, that it will have to be built elsewhere, that it will not be possible to build it at all, and so on. The likelihood of this risk occurring and the possible consequences of this risk must be assessed by the people responsible.

Uncertainty and risk are common terms in both probability theory and behavioral theory. Probability is strongly related to risk. It is one way of measuring uncertainty (Howes, 2001, p. 232). There are many mathematical and statistical definitions of probability, which are very complex. Probability theory attempts to quantify accurately and objectively the subjective statements we use every day when we say that something is “almost certain”, “very likely” or “almost impossible”. Statistics can be used to calculate the probability that an event will occur and the probability that it will not occur. The latter is called the risk of the event occurring (Košmelj, Rovan, 1997, p. 80). In simplified form, it takes the
probability of a value on a scale from zero to one. An event that will occur with zero probability is an impossible event, and one with one probability is a specific event. There is no risk in the latter. In reality, there are very few such extreme cases. Usually, events have a probability between zero and one, which means that they contain a certain degree of uncertainty. In statistical practice, the acceptable level of risk is usually less than 0.05, and in the management of projects a much higher risk is often acceptable. The risk could be completely eliminated if (Naylor, 1996, p. 81): they knew how to predict the future accurately, had enough influence to achieve the realization of the future as we had planned
it. Since both options are not feasible in the long run, we must accept risk, or at least a certain part of risk, as an integral part of life and of any project and its management. At least for the time being, we do not know how to predict the future accurately, nor can we influence it to the extent that all risk factors that could jeopardize our plans are eliminated.

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As projects are usually implemented under uncertain conditions, there was always a risk that the achievement of the project objectives would be jeopardized. Recently, as the project work method has gained ground, more and more different scientists and experts are dealing with risks – from economists, statisticians and organizers to insurance agents, energy engineers and building owners. The knowledge of project risks is constantly increasing. Various aspects of project risk are a central theme at many seminars, conferences and workshops around the world. Like risk in general, project risk consists of two elements (Moder, Phillips, 1964, p. 196): the probability that the risk will materialize and the negative consequences of a possible realization of the risk. Negative consequences for the
project mean that the project objectives will not be achieved. The project risk therefore represents any event that prevents or restricts the achievement of the project objectives, which must consequently be corrected or completely changed. Since the project objectives are always linked to specific costs, deadlines and the quality of the project’s effects, project risk is the risk of negative consequences, such as higher costs, extended deadlines or an insufficient quality of the project’s effects compared to the plan.

The process of project risk management has only recently become an area that the authors include in their work, so not much has been written about it. Most experts mention it only very superficially in their books on project management, and some even ignore it completely. Only a few people deal with the topic of risk management in greater depth and devote their entire work to it. The process of
project risk management has remained hidden and unexplored until today. It is still largely based on intuition, so that many project managers are not aware of the necessity of risk management. Only a few companies have developed a formal approach to project risk management (Thomsett, 2002, p. 161). Even today, in institutions with poorly developed project management, some related processes
are still designed separately, although they require the same skills and business elements. These are usually processes of project management, total quality management and competitive analysis. As the associations develop, they form a unified methodological system and link these processes together. In the next phase of development, the institutions further extend and improve the uniform methodology from the previous phase, as they strive for excellence in the field of project management. They are refining it by adding two new areas, change management and risk management, resulting in greater efficiency and effectiveness of these associations (Kerzner, 2001a, pp. 78-81). The area of risk management is still very unknown and underdeveloped, so that there are many uncertainties and unsolved problems.

IDENTIFICATION OF ALL POSSIBLE TYPES OF RISK IN PROJECTS

As soon as we start risk management, we have to identify all possible forms of risks that could jeopardize the achievement of the project goals. It is a matter of identifying all possible types of risks that are known to the project manager and the other project participants right at the beginning of risk management. Later in the risk management process, new types of risks may be discovered (Verzuh,
1999, p. 86).

We must first determine what types of indirect risks may occur in a particular project. Some also call these types risk factors (Royer, 2002, p. 18). Indirect risks cannot be quantified directly, but can only be stated descriptively. It is a qualitative risk. When it is implemented, it causes a direct risk to occur in the project. It is therefore the cause of the risk of delays, cost overruns and inadequate quality of project impact. It is part of the unfavorable development of events in the project and indirectly leads to the three most important project objectives not being achieved. Each risk has one or more causes and one or more consequences. The causes of indirect risk are very diverse and depend on the nature of the
indirect risk. The cause of the weather-related risk is a specific natural process, and the cause of the risk of late delivery can be a lack of work organization on the part of the supplier. Indirect risk leads to the occurrence of a direct project risk. The cause of the direct risk is therefore the realized indirect risk, and the consequences of the realized direct risk can be delays, excessive costs or insufficient quality in the project.
The following elements, among others, help us to determine the indirect risk:

  • own experiences and experiences of others with projects,
  • theoretical knowledge in certain areas,
  • recorded data on previous projects,
  • general information on the project in question,
  • Intuition,
  • creative thinking (brainstorming),
  • various techniques such as questionnaires, interviews, scenario analysis and the like.

The importance of experience in project risk management is particularly emphasized by Shepherd (1999, pp. 55-57). There are lists of many possible types of indirect risks that project participants can rely on in their work. These lists can vary greatly between different activities, and each institution often needs to draw up its own list tailored to its needs and circumstances. In such a list, the risk is divided according to whether the source of the risk is inside or outside the project. However, both broader groups are still divided into several more specific types of indirect risk.

1. external risk or risk due to the environment:

a) risk due to the natural environment:

  • weather risk,
  • terrain-related risk,
  • risk of natural disasters,

b) risk due to the legal environment:

  • risk due to changes in legislation,
  • contract risk,
  • property risk and theft,

c) risk due to the social environment:

  • risk due to cultural differences (norms, habits, traditions),
  • risk through public resistance (environmentalists, influential groups),
  • risk due to political factors (change of government, opposition to government),

d) Risk due to the economic environment:

  • risk related to the stability of the economy as a whole (inflation, taxes),
  • risk related to the stability of the business units involved in the project,
  • risk related to the stability of the association,

e) technological risk:

  • the risk of the inadequacy of existing technology,
  • the risk of the existing technology becoming obsolete,
  • the risk associated with the use or development of new technologies,

f) risk related to working capital:

  • the risk of injury and damage to work equipment,
  • risk of insufficient capacity of labor resources,
  • risk of technical changes,

g) risk due to suppliers:

  • risk of late delivery,
  • risk related to the quality of the work tasks delivered,
  • risk with regard to the quantity of work items delivered,
  • risk related to the price of the work elements supplied,

h) risk by the association manager:

  • the risk of lack of support for the project by the main leaders of the association,
  • risk of conflicts between project managers and other managers in the association,

i) risk from external contractors

  • risk due to insufficient commitment of external contractors to the project,
  • risk of non-compliance with project requirements by external contractors,

j) risk due to customers or end-users of project effects:

  • the risk of changes in customer requirements,
  • risk of customer dissatisfaction,
  • risk of poor cooperation with customers,

k) other external risk.

2. internal risk or risk related to project management:

a) project planning risk:

  • the risk of inadequate assessment of project duration or project costs: (a) project planning risk
  • the risk of omitting certain activities from the plan
  • risk of poor definition of project objectives,
  • risk of neglecting project objectives
  • the risk of using incomplete information,

b) the project implementation risk:

  • the risk of an insufficient number of project team members,
  • the “hidden” risk of staff shortages,
  • risk of conflicts within the project team,
  • risk of weak motivation of project team members
  • communication risk regarding expectations
  • the risk of not meeting the expectations of the project team members
  • risk of absence of project team members (illness, delays),
  • the risk of inefficiency, inexperience and incompetence of the project manager and other members of the project team,
  • risk of insufficient information support in the project

c) project control risk:

  • the risk of neglecting certain areas of project control,
  • risk of an out-of-date control of the project,
  • risk of lack of control by external experts,
Risk on projects - Milan Krajnc

d) other internal risk.

Only some types of indirect risk are listed, as it would be impossible to list them all. Other types of risk are found in every project, such as the risk of overloading project participants and

the risk due to insufficient coordination of external staff. The project manager and other members of the project team, as well as external contractors and end-users of the impact of the project, must be involved in identifying possible types of indirect risks that may occur in a given project. It is advisable to follow Murphy’s principle that “if something can go wrong, it will go wrong”. (Verzuh, 1999, p. 83). This is the easiest way to identify all the factors that endanger the project. In addition to the indirect risks, it is necessary to determine the direct types of project risks, which are the consequences of the indirect risk realized. Different types of direct risks can also be called risk groups (Royer, 2002, p. 32). The most
logical and simplest way is to classify the direct risk into three types. The types of direct risk in projects are therefore as follows:

  1. the time risk,
  2. the financial risk,
  3. the quality risk.

The division of project risk into direct and indirect is a further development of the division of risk into time risk, financial risk and quality risk. The latter subdivision actually only covers the direct types of project risk. The first subdivision also covers indirect risks in the project, which are the cause of the occurrence of direct risks. The classification of direct project risk covers the second part of the causeand- effect relationship already mentioned, the consequences. For example, if the indirect risk of conflicts within the project team materializes, this is the cause for the occurrence of the time risk in the project.

The time risk is direct and represents a kind of consequence of the indirect risk. If the direct risk then materializes, there is actually a delay in the project. Both the delay and the overrun of the project costs and the insufficient quality of the project effects are the final consequences of the project risk or the consequences of the realized direct risk. The realized direct risk is then followed by various measures –
from material penalties to verbal warnings. The direct risk can be quantified to a certain extent, and it can be treated with numerical data. Part of the direct risk can only be included in the project plan in a descriptive way, and we rely mainly on intuition when dealing with it. This risk can therefore be quantitative or qualitative. Since the realization of the indirect project risk is the cause of the occurrence of the direct risk, which is the central danger of any project, the role of indirect risk in
projects is to a certain extent secondary. The management of this risk is as important as the management of direct risk, but the essence of both management processes is to prevent or reduce the probability of realization of direct risk types and their consequences. The essence of determining the types of direct risks that threaten the project is to link causes and consequences. For each type of indirect risk it is necessary to determine which of the three consequences it causes.

In most cases, a particular type of indirect risk can involve both the risk of delays and higher costs and the risk of insufficient quality of the project’s effects. For example, there is the risk of changes in customer requirements. However, sometimes an indirect risk can also be the cause of only one or two
types of direct risk. The risk related to the price of the delivered work items is only the cause of a financial risk. The direct risk can be linked to a broader, business risk (Royer, 2002, pp. 32-33). The realization of the direct risk, that is, the failure to achieve project goals, can lead to operational or strategic risks at the level of the company as a whole. A failed project with delays, excessive costs or
deviations in the quality of the project effects can have a negative impact on the operational or strategic level of the institution, as it can jeopardize both the ongoing operation and the implementation of its longer-term strategies.
The causes of any risk, both indirect and direct, are an important element in dealing with this risk (Kerzner, 2001, p. 905). 

If the project manager knows the causes of a particular risk, it is easier to deal with it. However, he should not confuse the causes of the risk with its consequences. Dealing with the causes is usually more effective and easier than dealing with the consequences. The project manager must therefore
 irst try to eliminate or reduce the indirect risk. If he does not succeed in this, he must at least manage the direct risk as far as possible, so that it does not occur and lead to delays, cost overruns or insufficient quality of the project. 

Certain indirect risks remain in the project despite the efforts of the project manager to eliminate or reduce them. He has accepted the remaining risk and must now prepare for the consequences of a possible realization of this risk. These consequences are the occurrence of various types of direct risks in the project. The project manager must implement strategies to reduce the probability of a real project risk occurring. The project manager can prevent or reduce the probability of a direct risk occurring by using emergency plans. However, he can also do this by perfecting project planning, implementation or control. If the realization of an immediate risk cannot be prevented, he must accept this risk and deal with its ultimate consequences.

The project plan must be designed in such a way that it allows quantitative measurements of what has been achieved at certain intervals, which must be defined in advance. The planning must take place at least two levels – at the level of the overall project and at the level of the individual activities. With the first, the project manager creates a general overview of the project, with the second he defines the implementation of each individual activity. The planning should be neither too detailed nor too superficial. The project manager should not just pay attention to one particular risk and ignore all other possible types of risk (Kerzner, 1979, p. 428). By following these instructions, the direct project risk can be reduced. The direct risk can also be reduced during project implementation. A very effective method of reducing time risk can be to develop and use specific indicators that warn the project manager when a project is approaching the risk of delay. This method directs the project manager’s attention to the future and allows him to take active action instead of reacting passively to the risk of delay already realized. The system of leading indicators warns of the risk that the project will
not progress as planned. It is based on the determination of how much work remains to be done and how much time is left until the project is completed (Winslow, 2001, pp. 54-57). If the project manager determines that the necessary work cannot be completed on time, he must take immediate action. He or she must accelerate the implementation of certain activities or adjust the project plan. Of course, the project risk can also be reduced within the framework of project management.

CONCLUSION

Projects are becoming more and more important nowadays, as the fierce competition on the global market, increasing customer requirements, constant technological and other changes and the rapid development of knowledge require the most efficient way of association work. Therefore, more and more institutions are using the project approach in their companies, which is one of the ways to gain a competitive advantage. More and more authors devote their works to the characteristics of projects and their execution. There is always a risk in project work because projects are one-off activities with which project participants come into contact for the first time and about which they have little information. The need for risk management is therefore usually present in projects, but the part about project risk and the manager with it is still relatively small. Moreover, the future in which the projects will take place is never fully known. One has to be aware that only predictions about the future are always possible, because one cannot know exactly what the future will look like. The result of good planning is always only an approximation of what will actually be realized in the future. Many different types of project risks are known, but the types of risks are most often exposed according to their relationship to the project objectives. These types are the time risk, the financial risk and the risk due to the quality of the project effects. However, the risk can be divided into direct and indirect, depending on the way in which the project objectives are affected.

Avtor - Milan Krajnc

Author of the article: Milan Krajnc, pedagogue, entrepreneur & crisis manager
I teach you to look “at yourself” as a third person. For more information or an introductory meeting, write to me at official@milankrajnc.com

Don’t philosophize, rather create! Milan Krajnc
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Do not philosophize, but create!

If you have an idea or a wish, you must put it into action as soon as possible, but not as savages, but calmly and calculatingly, you must prepare well for each campaign and then see it through to the end.

If you play on the “first ball”, you will find yourself in a fog, if you do not act, you will continue to
philosophize.

In the past, I never knew what consultants did, but research agencies … Everyone was talking about
selling fog. Although, on the other hand, I wondered if they were selling fog, if anyone could buy it. So fog is a lucrative business.

So I went down to explore fog, and as a project management consultant I became its salesman myself.

Even with the first customer I encountered complaints: “Do not philosophize, work – we thought you would do our projects for us and not tell us how to do them. We already know how to work, we just do not have time for everything. “Then I lost all confidence and the fog fell on my eyes:” Yes, what should I do now, should I just grab a shovel and help them work. “

I said to myself: “Do not philosophize, create!” I asked them if I could review their previous projects to see how they work, and then maybe I could actually do some of their projects to make it easier for me. After analyzing all the project documentation, invoices, minutes, contracts, and accounts, I found that
not a single project ended with a profit, or at most a big deficit, but since they had many projects, starting a new project covered the loss of the past. After three days I found out that although they had  enough money in the account and paid the bills on time, they were making bigger and bigger losses because the money they were working with did not really belong to them. They created a virtual reality
for themselves. I created an image analysis for them with a focus on finances.

But then the fog fell on their eyes, and I told them: “Guys, do not philosophize, start creating!” You have done nothing so far, you are in debt, you have created nothing, you are tired of trying too hard. It’s time to start projects, to work on projects.

So we divided each project into three phases, equally distributed in time. One third for preparation, one third for implementation and one third for completion. They did not give in any more, neither with their employees nor with the customers. They began to stand up for themselves and say a resounding
“YES” or “NO”. They trusted themselves and others and began to stand out from the operation. After a good year of this way of working, they paid back all their loans, went on vacation after five years and took care of family matters, and the money they have in the transaction account is actually theirs.

And what did they do about it? They bought a fog car.

Don’t philosophize, rather create! Milan Krajnc

Counseling is still seen as a fog, unfortunately counseling cannot be taken in hand, but its effects are measurable. In particular, before one decides to use consulting services, goals must be set and measurable results achieved (current account situation, well-being, time spent). However, since many consultants do not know how to set goals for themselves, the term has come to be used: Sell fog. You do not really get advice from the end product, but “dispels” the fog you have created for yourself.

The words: “Do not philosophize, but create” can be equated with “walk like a cat around boiling porridge”. The most vivid way to show yourself is to conquer. When a man sees a “beauty,” he first consults with friends, and then they talk about her all evening, and maybe a week later, and in the end he never approaches her because he thinks he is not good enough for her anyway. The “beauties” are not “bav-bav”, they would react when he approaches her and answer her when he sees her. Chances are that he could win her too, since most women like direct men. Women are even more aware that life is fleeting, so they need “action” with them!

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If you have an idea or a wish, you must put it into action as soon as possible, but not as savages, but calmly and calculatingly, you must prepare well for each campaign and then see it through to the end.

If you play on the “first ball”, you will find yourself in a fog, if you do not act, you will continue to philosophize.

Avtor - Milan Krajnc
Author of the article: Milan Krajnc, pedagogue, entrepreneur & crisis manager I teach you to look “at yourself” as a third person. For more information or an introductory meeting, write to me at official@milankrajnc.com
What is a project office? Milan Krajnc
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What is a project office

Before we start to set up a new organization scheme and structure, we have to carry out a very detailed analysis of the whole company. With this information we draw a map of the current real situation in the organization. At the same time we draw the ideal structure of the project office according to the wishes of the company, public institution, association and the like. This organization then decides for itself which way it wants to go.

A project office is not just a software, but a way of organizing a work process, work organization and way of thinking.

Research has shown that most companies are convinced that they use project management in their
process. However, when asked what a project and what a project office is, only half a percent of
respondents answered correctly. 340 Slovenian companies were included in the survey. A good half of them already have a project office, and only half of them actually use it. And 82 percent of the respondents believe that the project office is software.

Due to a misunderstanding of the term project, project management is also misunderstood. Our project work is too “domestic”: that we all do everything and are responsible for everything. In project work, tasks and responsibilities are precisely defined. There is no more collective responsibility. Project work brings order and organization into the processes of organizations. However, it is important that the entire work process is project based, otherwise there will be confusion.

Introduction of a project office

Before we start to set up a new organizational chart and set up the structure, we have to make a very detailed analysis of the whole company, namely:

  • Analysis of the information flow (what information is exchanged by the employees, what is created, what comes and goes into the company)
  • Analysis of the inventory of processes and the links between them;
  • personality analysis of employees (character, reaction in critical situations, communication, leadership and the like),
  • Analysis of business documents (contracts, travel orders, files, regulations, etc.),
  • Analysis of information systems.

With this information we draw a map of the current real situation in the organization. At the same time we draw the ideal structure of the project office according to the wishes of the company, public institution, association and the like. This organization then decides for itself which way it wants to go.

What all can influence the choice of the path? Flexibility of the individual, change in internal distribution, systematization of jobs, new jobs, new information system, excessive stagnation of production and whatever else could be found. Indeed, the analysis says something about the state of the company and gives a clear picture of what a change in the way of working means. In this way we can find out how the individual reacts, what motivates him, what his strengths are. We analyze where and why bottlenecks occur in the process, where the process has time reserves and where cost savings are possible. In the following we also find out what possibilities there are to introduce a supporting information system.

When a customer decides on a path – it is very important whether he keeps the same team of employees or hires new ones – all employees must be involved.

The project office has only one manager

The organization of a project office requires that all things are in one place. If we look at the picture of the roles in a project-led organization, we see that such a project organization chart has only one leader. He cannot be the leader of any project (then he would not be supervised by anyone), but he can be the contractor. The head of the project office is the director of the organization. As an outside observer, he is unencumbered by the project and therefore notices errors earlier. If the organization is very large, control of the projects is taken over by its assistants, who are specialized in individual professional fields. However, they have to change the area of control from time to time so that they do not fall into fixed patterns.

What is project office - Milan Krajnc
Slika 1: Vloge v projektno vodeni organizaciji

The director is the head of the project office and his assistant is the assistant to the project office. The department heads in the organization are now project managers. However, all others in the organization take on the role of contractors. The project manager selects them according to the content of the project. The departments are transformed into project teams according to the company strategy.

For each project, a team of individuals must be put together who are focused on the same goal and are very independent. Tasks must be carefully divided, communication rules written and expectations clearly formulated. It is therefore best if each individual prepares a report and a plan for the execution of his or her task before starting work. In this way, the project manager will see if everyone
understands him and what he can expect from them. It is important to know how the individuals complement each other and in which areas the tasks are interdependent.  Project work requires serious, team-oriented work.

A typical project meeting

The project team must meet once every 14 days. It only differs if a problem arises that can be solved by the project manager and the individual designer. At project meetings we only talk about projects. Everyone must be informed at all times about changes that affect the progress of the project.

Minutes must be taken of each meeting. The minutes are only a document that is completed. It is recommended to keep the minutes of the forum.

Meeting rules:

  • The meeting must be convened at least one week (several) days before the meeting. The participants of the meeting must then also receive all documents and the agenda.
  • Before the meeting all those present switch off their mobile phones.
  • The meeting is chaired by the person who has organized it.
  • The agenda is read first.
  • The participants make suggestions for the agenda and approve it.
  • The first item of the sitting should be the adoption of the minutes of the previous sitting.
  • The minutes are drawn up by the deputy project leader during the sitting.
  • The minutes should contain questions (indicate who asked them) and answers (write who answered) and conclusions on each item.
  • Only one person should take the floor and at the end of their deliberations give the floor to the next person who wishes to add their comments.
  • All minutes of meetings are stored electronically on the intranet site.

Who is the project manager

We are all project managers who are involved in the project in any way. The first rule of a project
manager is to be honest. There is no manipulation in the project. Everyone must have all the information to do their job smoothly and take full responsibility for it. The project manager must be an independent person, but he or she must communicate with others and must not insist on his or her decision if it is not correct.

Poor communication leads to conflicts

The project can encounter problems for various reasons: mostly due to poor communication or a misunderstanding of the project goal, but also due to exploitation for personal interests.

We solve bad communication by asking everyone involved to give a written report about their work so far and a plan for the future and asking them what they think needs to be done. But we must give them clear rules for reporting. Then we prepare a joint workshop in which we reconcile the common goals so that there are no excuses and no transfer of responsibility to others. Let’s draw up a detailed
error plan, and the prerequisite for a successful solution to the problem is that the project plan was well prepared in the initial phase and that all responsibilities were laid down in the contract.

Employees are also projects

When selecting employees, we have to treat them as if each one were their own project, but of course only in this process. That sounds tough, but we must have the same rules for everyone, so that the relationship does not become strained or we do not have a guilty conscience. We must be very clear and honest about what we expect from them and what their obligations are, and we must emphasize our obligations to them. In a personal meeting, the relationship must of course be honest and friendly.

Project management in public institutions

In public institutions, projects should be more closely monitored, as public money is spent. Since they are supervised by regulatory authorities, the proper management of an individual project is very important. Let us just mention the legally correct implementation of public procurement for major investments. The procedure and documentation is extensive, reports have to be written, costs have to be monitored and so on.

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Because of the way it works, it is most effective to connect public institutions within the city administration as a common service. More and more public institutions are faced with survival or extensive administration, and in such situations they do not worry about the functioning of the project. By connecting under the auspices of the city administration, they can significantly reduce their operating costs. Joint services are set up, specializing in administration, maintenance, accounting, event organization and the like, and each public institution can devote itself to the professional work for which it was set up.

A project is a self-contained unit of tasks with a well-defined goal and a known beginning and end. The work on the project is called project management, and the institution that manages the projects is called project office.
The employees are supposed to work and are also paid by the project.

Avtor - Milan Krajnc
Author of the article: Milan Krajnc, pedagogue, entrepreneur & crisis manager I teach you to look “at yourself” as a third person. For more information or an introductory meeting, write to me at official@milankrajnc.com
Municipality as a project office - Milan Krajnc
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Municipality as a Project Office

In our work of reorganizing municipal administrations, we always make an analysis / snapshot of the current situation. We find that some work is duplicated, that there are delays in the flow of information, that employees often do not know at what stage the projects are and that employees and management do not understand each other or they speak a “different language”.

The most common findings that lead to “chaos” or the situation in the municipal administration is unclear strategy and direction of the municipality, if the definition of who is the “first” superior to employees (mayor, director, head of office) is unclear, poor communication, consequently unclear distributed work (too general systematization), unevenly distributed responsibility, different conception of projects… As a solution to the situations that arose, we saw a different way of working and organization of the municipal administration. Thus, in ten years of work, we have developed a system of organization of the municipality in the form of a Project Office, and the mode of operation according to the Dynamic Communication Model.

Dinamični model vodenja. Milan Krajnc. Tiskana knjiga.

When we find problems in the organization of the municipal administration, it is difficult to point to the culprit or to the true cause of the error. Most of us are of the opinion that the problems in the organization stem mainly from management, which is a special feature in municipal administrations, as in principle the management is changed every four years, which means that there is not enough time to implement major visible changes. Each mayor also has his own views on the management of the municipality, his own expectations and his own way of working. The team in the municipality in most cases remains unchanged, but in practice it means that every four years they have to adapt and change the way they work… The biggest problem faced by employees in the municipal administration is the unclear definition of superiority. Many times the mayor directly delegates tasks to each employee, and then he receives instructions from the director and / or directly from the chief or head of offices. Work practice suggests that most employees so often receive different information from different sources (superiors) for the same task, which in turn leads to confusion. This is often the main reason for congestion in the municipality, given the fact that municipalities do not have a clearly defined development plan, as a basis for the implementation of project and work activities.

The role of the mayor in the project office

The most important thing is that everyone in the municipal administration performs their tasks and adheres to their responsibilities and competencies. If we explain… the mayor should never be directly involved in the work of the municipal administration, but should contact through the director of the municipal administration. The role of the mayor is more presentable than operational, he is the link between the “people” and the municipal administration, when he tries to realize the wishes of the people through mayoralty within the set goals.

This means that the municipal administration is run exclusively by the director, who has a duty to be in constant contact and coordination with the mayor. In practice, municipalities are also often the founders of various public institutes and agencies. All these institutions are budget users and were established for public good purposes. This means that the municipality must actively cooperate with them, control the use of funds and together with them follow the vision of the municipality. Public institutes and agencies should be understood as an extension of the municipality for the realization of the set vision, where the mayor plays an important role as a coordinator. We have already mentioned that the mayor should not interfere in the operational work of the municipal administration, but should only communicate regularly with the director of the municipal administration. The mayor should also regularly communicate with all directors of public institutes and agencies whose founder or co-founder is the municipality. It is important that all these institutions interact in a unified way in order to achieve the same goals. Even in this case, the mayor must not interfere in the operational work of these institutions. Following the example of the function entrusted to him, it represents only a close link between the institution itself and the municipality, especially from the point of view of the strategic development of the municipality and following the set vision. Unfortunately, we perceive that the practice of Slovenian mayors is often the opposite. Mayors are too involved in the operation itself and therefore often overburdened. The ordinances on the establishment of municipalities clearly define the responsibilities and competencies of the mayor, but in practice this is not the case in most cases.

Občina kot projektna pisarna - Milan Krajnc
Picture 1

If we looked today at how many Slovenian municipalities have a clearly set vision and development strategy, we would be surprised by the modest number. You could say that mayors are not aware enough of their mission. If we allow ourselves to express it symbolically, the mayor is the “voice of the people”. Mayorship should not be an individual experience of achieving political goals, but goals laid by citizens. Certainly politics plays its role here, but when the mayor takes office, he must not represent only his political interests, but the interests of the entire municipality.
However, a strategy set and written down somewhere is not enough to achieve strategic goals. The role of the mayor should be, together with the representatives of the citizens, to regularly monitor whether the set strategy satisfactorily follows the vision and enables the achievement of the set goals. Here, however, we encounter responsibility itself. The mayor is responsible for successfully achieving strategic goals, but practice shows that strategic goals are often set too abstractly and unattainably. In our opinion, part of the responsibility should be prepared to take on those who participated in setting these goals, we are talking about councilors who have a very important role in the development of the municipality. It is the councilors who are the voice of the people who are entrusted to represent the interests of the citizens. It turns out, however, that this role is often intertwined with political machinations. In favor of real efficiency, those who participated in their setting – councilors – should also take part of the responsibility for unrealistically set goals.

Picture 1 clearly indicates that the mayor must act more externally, i.e. be in constant contact and available to the citizens, and at the same time take care of inter-municipal and international integration.

The mayor is obliged to take on the role of coordinator of all key institutions that pursue the same goal set by the citizens. It is also the mayor who should give clear instructions to the directors, who should take care of the efficiency of their employees. Slovenian practice shows that with the new mayor, a new reorganization of the municipality often follows. Due to some new interests, this is understandable, but the reorganization should not be dealt operationally by the mayor, but by the director. The mayor must give the director of the municipal administration only clear guidelines for the development of the municipality, and the director must judge whether he can pursue new goals with the current organizational structure and staff, or whether certain changes will be needed in the municipal administration. It follows that the reorganization of the municipal administration and other support institutions should be carried out only when the development guidelines are clearly defined, ie when the goals that follow the vision are known and when the strategy of the municipality is clearly defined.

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The importance of the vision and development plan as a basis for project activities in the municipality

We all like to remember the election promises that the future first people of the municipality promise us in favor of their victory. Which of the candidates will offer a program that will be written on the skin of our voters? Sports enthusiastically, citizens applaud the new sports hall, culturists take the side of the candidate who offers a cultural home, businessmen demand an industrial zone, and so on. No, this is not a description of pre-election health issues that would betray the municipality in which I live, in fact it is a description of events that can be identified, I am sure, with each of the Slovenian municipalities in our country. And when, after certain terms of office, we look back, which is supposed to be our duty and responsibility to the voters, we find that the long-awaited pre-election promises have been shattered or that they have been partially fulfilled, but still do not meet our expectations. likeable image of our municipality. So we ask ourselves, why is that? Let us recall ko .when, on the basis of the adopted legislation, municipalities in Slovenia began to be established like mushrooms after the rain, their intention was to free themselves as newly formed municipalities from the shackles of connections of the then joint municipal administrations and get the opportunity to develop in the direction of local circumstances. most expedient and priority. But alas, we note, for the most part it was left only on an untapped opportunity. When we talk about the development of the municipality, following the example of Slovenian envy, we began to compare ourselves with neighboring, usually incomparable municipalities, while forgetting to take advantage of local development opportunities, which should be used as an advantage. We think wrongly if we think it is important in the foreground to have a football stadium in every municipality, without it being worthwhile to focus on the individuality that each municipality has.

In the municipality, projects cannot take place uncontrolled, as we like to say overnight, but they must be set in the long run. The most important is the development program for the next ten years, which roughly defines what the municipality will do in the next ten years and how it will use its advantages and potential at the highest level. Even earlier, however, the municipality needs a vision, according to our estimates for the next fifty years. The vision is formed on the basis of natural features and history, in that area. The municipality must have a clear direction on whether to focus on tourism, sports, production, industry… in such a small area we cannot have everything at once, but we must give priority to only one, and other activities are partially adapted. “What will be the bridge over the river where there is no water?”
Only when we have a vision, we can create a Development Plan, which defines the content and timing of projects that will lead to the desired state. It is expedient for the Development Plan to be prepared primarily by citizens, under professional guidance.

The municipality must undertake the development plan comprehensively and invite representatives of various interest groups, the economy… in short, in connection with several different local individuals, who are divided into interest groups. Of course, everyone must be citizens of that municipality. The entire design of the development plan should be led by qualified experts in the field of strategy, project management and communication, who are desirable to be from another place, perhaps even from another region, as they are unencumbered by local problems and much easier to guide groups moving away. from the purpose of socializing or get complicated. As mentioned, the groups should be composed of interests; namely in the field of sports, culture, education, economy… each group formulates its own ideas and proposals, which are then formed in consensus into a comprehensive document. The communication system follows a pyramid system, where suggestions are formed below and then formed vertically into a final opinion. This is not a program of political parties or members of a certain current, but a program of the entire municipality. Only in this way does the program gain credibility, stability and independence. In fact, it should be called “some” world that would take care of tracking and developing this program. Only a development plan can contribute to the long-term rational development of the municipality and thus also to a stable environment, which will be taken into account by the leaders of the municipality in their implementation, neglecting their own interests when changing the term of office. The development plan must be based on the interest of local development and aimed at a meaningful and long-term integrated image of the municipality. The program of candidates in local elections should contain only concrete guidelines with set time and financial plans for the implementation of the adopted development plan, and show their excellence in the implementation of individual items of the plan. After all, only municipalities that have pre-made detailed project drafts and clear projections of local development will be successful in public tenders for drawing state and European funds. It is in this direction that we should think when we talk about the effective development of the municipality in general.

Preparation of the budget on the basis of the development plan

As already mentioned, the basic guidelines should be followed by the mayors in their election promises, because otherwise the program has no value and the municipality consequently begins to deviate from its essence, and above all, development stops. On the basis of the election program or realization of the development plan had to work mainly on concrete solutions and optimization or. innovation of modern times. The electoral program must be a very concrete upgrade of the Development Plan and the basis for the preparation of the budget for an individual year, the responsibility for the preparation of which lies exclusively with the professional services of the municipal administration. The budget as such, in terms of its content and timing, in a way represents a project year, and as such it should be considered, and a map drawn up to realize the realization. Each budget item independently or as a set of several budget items represents an ongoing project and a series of processes, which in the course of implementation take place in different terms, content and finances to the set goal (if we take into account that all projects aim to implement the Development Plan) . That is why a common understanding of the term “project” seems important. The project, from which the project management skills derive in the implementation phase, has four basic stages: definition of goals, planning, production – monitoring and completion of the project.

Based on the knowledge of the situation in the municipalities, we find that they know how to establish a budget quite well, but later lose control over monitoring the implementation and intermediate status of individual projects. A timetable needs to be drawn up for how the budget will be spent.

Tracking the realization of set projects on the basis of budget items

A clear visual picture of the real situation is expressed at some point by a gantt chart.

Občina kot projektna pisarna - Milan Krajnc
Figure 2: Planned activities

We add the duration and execution time from which we make a gantt chart (see Figure 3).

Občina kot projektna pisarna - Milan Krajnc
Figure 3: Gantt chart

The data collected and uniformly created offer a comprehensive overview of the use of funds in the local community, also in connecting municipalities in joint projects when it comes to drawing state funds or European Union funds. Such monitoring of the use of budget control follows the thesis of the expected value of project implementation and provides security and assurance that the municipality independently or in conjunction with another municipality, with timely activities satisfies the planned content, timing and financial plan of projects and achieves full traceability of earmarked spending.
Given the interdependence with human factors, the overview of the availability of employees, responsible persons and contractors within the municipal administration and their share of occupancy on a particular project should not be neglected, which is the basis for planning employee involvement in other work responsibilities in the municipality. With this type of review, we achieve a more rational distribution of the employee’s work tasks and ensure an even workload of employees and relieve overburdened individuals, as we also compose a matrix of competencies and responsibilities for implementation. This information will tell us a realistic picture of project implementation.

Project design

Above all, it is important that we have enough time to prepare for projects. Good project preparation does not only mean setting a schedule or another plan, but a whole set of processes that, in interdependence, significantly affect the subsequent efficiency and effectiveness of project implementation and the achievement of the basic objectives of the project. The data indicate that only about 30% of all projects are actually completed on time, within the estimated costs, with the expected results and the final impact. 20% of projects do not end, while as many as 50% are final, but with changed final goals and expectations. The results of the analysis of projects in Slovenian municipalities reveal that the reasons for this are that projects are rushed, whether an insufficient number of employees are involved in their implementation, or that decisions are made too late, tenders appear at the last minute…. The relatively high level of project implementation failure is largely influenced by the inadequacy of project preparation, and vice versa, when we talk about successfully implemented projects, ie those that were well prepared. In short, if we want the project to return the invested investment in the long run, without itself becoming the subject of a new investment (debugging), it is necessary to prepare well for it and later complete it correctly. The consequences of premature moves on projects are manifested in not achieving the desired results and exceeding the planned value of projects.
With the image of the Gantt chart that we create, we actually see which projects are realistic or we can organize them so that they are realistically derived, not just to meet our impatience. With a visual display, we will get to the optimization, time and financial costs faster. At the same time, we will divide the work among the employees so that they will use 50% of the time for process work (as required by law) and 50% of the time for projects and development, which are projections for an efficient municipal administration.

Občina kot projektna pisarna - Milan Krajnc
Figure 4: Relationship between project and process work

Organizing the entire municipal administration with the elements of a project office

The Municipal Administration performs operational tasks in accordance with the set plan of the municipality and mandatory tasks defined by law. The work of the municipal administration is organized and supervised by the director of the municipal administration. Therefore, all tasks to employees must come from the top, which is represented in the municipal administration by the director. The mayor should not get involved in solving operational problems and problems. Employees are also not allowed to turn to the mayor in their work. First and foremost, they must first turn to their first superior, who can escalate higher, which means that this can be the later superior of our first superior, as long as we don’t get to the director. For the director, however, this path of resolving operational matters is coming to an end. In our experience, however, it often happens that employees turn directly to the mayor. Of course, we cannot say that this is merely a habit of the employees, as the mayors themselves often delegate tasks past the director. And when the delegation of tasks from several directions begins, then we can talk about “organized chaos”. And in this “chaos,” information begins to be lost and responsibilities transferred to co-workers. To make the confusion even greater, according to most of the employees in the municipal administration, it seems that such a way of communication and operation of the municipal administration is completely normal, if not necessary for the performance of public good tasks.
So, if we want the municipal administration to work efficiently, then we must first clarify the very concept of efficiency. The municipal administration should not differ in its way of operating from a company that is on the market. On the contrary, it should take even more account of the laws of the market. Some would say the municipality has nothing to do with the market. However, we are often mistaken here. The municipality markets itself, and the potential buyers are the citizens that the municipality wants to bring to its environment, as well as the citizens that it wants to keep in its municipality. We could say that the municipality has its market share as large as the population of the municipality. Each individual municipality has the opportunity to increase its market share only if it knows how to behave market-wise and attract as many potential new citizens as possible to its environment. The higher the “market share” of the municipality, the higher the funds from the budget. However, it should also be taken into account that municipalities are under the scrutiny of various inspectorates as well as the public themselves due to the disposal of public funds, and this should be an additional reason for market behavior.

Effective and rational operation can be achieved when each employee is aware of their responsibilities and works as a team. In practice, we found that the project approach is also of key importance in municipal administrations. This means that employees need to learn to think project-wise. Every task they carry out must be taken as a project, be it a more or less large-scale project. Each staff member’s task provides for its purpose, its purpose, its content, the deadline and the specific staff to perform it. It is necessary to establish control over individual projects – tasks and to establish an efficient flow of information, as communication plays a key role in every organization.

In the company Sirius.si d.o.o. we have developed a dynamic model of communication in the municipal administration, with the aim of accelerating the flow of information and establishing control over all events. When we talk about supervision, this does not mean that the director must establish control over the operation of the entire municipal administration, but that each employee must establish control over his work and over the information at his disposal. Most tasks in the municipal administration are interdependent among employees. Each individual should clearly define in what form and to what extent his predecessor must provide him with certain information in order to be able to carry out his task effectively in a process. At the same time, he must carry out his activity by passing it on in accordance with the expectations of the staff member involved in the process behind him.
This way of working requires an ongoing exchange of information. However, it is true that employees should first be taught the basics of the project approach, as we find that usually each employee understands the meaning of the project in their own way.

Practice has shown that most employees in the municipal administration understand the “project” only as tenders from EU funds. And, if everyone understands the meaning of the project differently, then it means that there are problems in communication, so it is necessary to unify communication first and establish the “same” language of communication with employees.

The same approach should be used for more demanding investment projects, except that there is a greater scope of tasks and thus greater responsibility of all involved. In these projects, we suggest that part of the responsibility be assumed by those who participated in the creation of the idea itself, or are “guilty” of the creation of the project. These are the saints. Namely, all major and demanding projects are carried out in accordance with the “wishes” of the councilors. And if someone was involved in the creation of the project idea itself, then they should also be involved in the further process of planning, preparation and implementation as a project manager. It means that the Councilors lead their areas and are project managers, while the professional associates are operatives. With such an approach, the municipality would be easier to achieve the set goals, and part of the responsibility would be transferred to the “creators” of the development of the municipality. With such a way of working, the municipality would operate in the form of a project office, supported by a dynamic model of communication. The dynamic model of communication, however, does not only mean the exchange of information between employees, but primarily teaches each individual individually. First of all, we have to learn to communicate with ourselves and organize a project on a weekday, only then can we start to encourage the flow of information between employees and establish a project approach at the level of the entire municipal administration. However, we can organize a working day as a project only when we have mastered the basics of planning activities.

As part of the project approach, each individual must plan their daily, weekly and monthly activities. In daily planning, we define the activities we need to perform for the next day. This is best done at the end of the workday. The next working day, in the morning, we first review the list of tasks that we tackle by priority. Of course, such a list is not constant and will be updated throughout the day. The purpose of daily planning is not to forget about tasks and to stick to deadlines. We repeat the same process of daily planning every working day. Once employees master daily planning, then they embark on weekly planning. This, in turn, requires greater concentration and detailed knowledge of the “rhythm” of the workplace. However, if the employee has previously done daily planning, then he will not have any problems on a weekly basis. Based on the daily plans, at the end of the week we set a weekly plan for the week that follows. The weekly plan includes key tasks that can be planned in advance according to the content of the job. At the beginning of the week, the employee checks their weekly activities, coordinates them and possibly complements them. At the end of the week, he has to check whether he has carried out all the planned activities, or to reschedule them to the next week. When an employee wins weekly planning, he embarks on a monthly one. He refocuses on weekly plans, extracts recurring tasks, and sets a monthly plan at the beginning of the month, in which he introduces activities that are time-bound to the planning month. At the end of the month, a review of monthly activities follows. In this way, the employee checks himself and at the same time takes responsibility for his work.

If we organize the municipal administration as a project office, we can structurally imagine that the director of the municipal administration is in the role of Head of the project office, and below him are the project managers. Project managers draw on human resources and various organizational units (departments / services) to carry out and manage projects. When it comes to development projects, then project managers are councilors, and in the case of procedural tasks assigned by the state, project managers are heads of departments. This is a way for the entire municipal administration to start operating as a project, ie in the form of a project office. The same approach to project organization of work must be taken by all public institutes / agencies under the auspices of the municipality. Each segment (municipal administration, public institutes / agencies) operates on a project basis, but the municipality as a whole must also operate on a project basis. This means that at a higher level it is necessary to establish coordination between the municipal administration and all public institutions within the municipality. The municipality as a whole is organized by the project when the mayor, as the head of the umbrella project office in the municipality, takes care of the coordination of institutions under the auspices of the municipality and the municipal administration. Such an approach enables mutual cooperation on projects and joint drawing of human resources. Namely, the municipal administration as well as public institutes and public agencies within the municipality are going towards the same goal, so combining human resources on joint projects of the municipality is optimal.

Mayor at the head of the Leading Project Office in the municipality!

As we mentioned at the beginning, the mayor is a representative of the people, and the municipal administration and all other institutions under the auspices of the municipality (JZ, JA) are operational to achieve strategic goals. Thus, the role of the mayor is to establish a balance between the set strategic goals of the municipality and the available human, financial, material and technological resources (see Figure 6), which is easiest to establish if the entire municipality acts as an umbrella project office.

Občina kot projektna pisarna - Milan Krajnc
Figure 5: Municipality as an leading project office
LITERATURE:

1. HAUC, Gregor, KRAJNC PAVLICA, Milan. Strategic goals – how to check if we are on the right track ?. In: PALČIČ, Iztok, editor (s). Project Forum 2007, Podčetrtek, 13-15. June 2007. Project Excellence: A Collection of Lectures. Ljubljana: Slovenian Association for Project Management, 2007, p. 229-234. [COBISS.SI-ID 20641592]
2. KRAJNC PAVLICA, Milan. Project management at public institutions. Project Office, Aug. 25 2005, vol. 1, no. 9. [COBISS.SI-ID 20838456]
3. KRAJNC PAVLICA, Milan. Demanding reorganization: project management and personal project office. Business Assistance, May 2006, Vol. 1, no. 2, p. 12-15, ill., Tables. [COBISS.SI-ID 20672056]
4. KRAJNC PAVLICA, Milan. What is a project office? : for only a percentage of respondents, this is the way of working. Business Assistance, May 2006, Vol. 1, no. 2, p. 19-22, ill. [COBISS.SI-ID 20673080]
4. KRAJNC PAVLICA, Milan. The impact of personal goals on project progress. Proj. network Slov., jun. 2006, vol. 9, no. 2, p. 30-33. [COBISS.SI-ID 16363750]
5. KRAJNC PAVLICA, Milan. A project like a stage: “We have to live life and not play!”. Project office, 25 February. 2006, vol. 2, no. 4. [COBISS.SI-ID 20834616]
7. KRAJNC PAVLICA, Milan, KRAJNC PAVLICA, Simona, JANC, Andreja. How to make changes in the work process. Entrepreneur. [Printed ed.], Oct. 2007, vol. 16, no. [9], p. 42-43, fig. [COBISS.SI-ID 20642616]
8. KRAJNC PAVLICA, Milan, KRAJNC PAVLICA, Simona. The goal – for someone who knows where he is sailing, the wind is always favorable. In: PALČIČ, Iztok, editor (s). Project Forum 2007, Podčetrtek, 13-15. June 2007. Project Excellence: A Collection of Lectures. Ljubljana: Slovenian Association for Project Management, 2007, p. 124-129. [COBISS.SI-ID 20641336]
8. KRAJNC PAVLICA, Milan. Reorganization of the work process with the help of project management, with an emphasis on accepting responsibility for human resources. In: STARE, Aljaž, editor (s). Project Forum of the Slovenian Association for Project Management 2005, Otočec, 9 and 10 June 2005. With projects to a higher value! : collection of lectures. Ljubljana: Slovenian Association for Project Management, 2005, p. 195-200. [COBISS.SI-ID 20640056]
10. KRAJNC PAVLICA, Milan. A director’s childhood affects running a business (a company in crisis can be saved by a psychotherapist, not just an economist). Kairos, 2007, vol. 1, no. 1/2, p. 145. [COBISS.SI-ID 20640568]
10. KRAJNC PAVLICA, Milan. The effect of personal objectives on the project objectives. In: SEMOLIČ, Brane (ed.), KERIN, Andrej (ed.), STARE, Aljaž (ed.). Book of abstracts and congress program. Ljubljana: ZPM Slovenian Project Management Association: = ZPM Slovenian Project Management Association, 2006, p. 32. [COBISS.SI-ID 20641080]
12. VILFAN, Joze, KRAJNC PAVLICA, Milan. New paradigm for the Lisbon Strategy. V: Proceedings. Nova Gorica: Mestna občina: Slovenian Business & Research Association, 2005, p. 1-8, fig. [COBISS.SI-ID 20644664]

Sources:

13. Personal experience as a member of the Finance Committee in the Ptuj Municipality from 2004 to 2008 (Milan Krajnc Pavlica)
14. Professional experience, analysis of the work process in more than 50 Slovenian municipalities
15. Editor of the e-journal Project Office ISSN 1854-1240 (Milan Krajnc Pavlica)

Avtor - Milan Krajnc

Author of the article: Milan Krajnc, pedagogue, entrepreneur & crisis manager
I teach you to look “at yourself” as a third person. For more information or an introductory meeting, write to me at official@milankrajnc.com

Information project office - Milan Krajnc
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Office for information projects

The information system must provide all data in one place and must not duplicate work. Such information systems are expensive, so we can also use partial solutions or simple web applications, which we turn into intranets. In this way we mainly connect data from different programs and combine them in one place. It must allow delegation of tasks from one place and an overview by projects. It is
important that the information environment is user-friendly and above all easy to use.

Especially project work can lead to more administrative work. For the security of the project, things must be recorded and reported on a regular basis. This is the most common reason why project management is rarely brought to life. But administrative hurdles can be overcome with a good information system.

The information system is only a support for project work. We do not start the implementation until we have a strategy, a complete organization chart and an analysis of the knowledge of computer science and information technology of all those who will use the information system.

Before we decide on a new information system, we should carry out an analysis of the old system and see what really makes it possible. Only when we find that it is not suitable do we start to look for new possibilities. We must be very careful about the possibility of data transfer, as this can be the biggest obstacle to changing the way we work – no data should be lost or changed.

What do we expect from the information system?

The information system, which we call the project office, must enable us to link all data together. Above all, it should simplify work and rationalize costs and time. It must function as an intranet and extranet, making it possible to work remotely. It must contain all the programs that the company has used up to now: from the financial accounting and marketing program to the reception book, warehouse, etc.

What is a project office? Milan Krajnc

The basis of the information system as a project office must be the business plan of the company.
Every order must be treated like a project, i.e. by clicking on it we see its entire history: all information
about the client and the contractors. All documents in electronic form, news, financial reports and all
activities that have been or will be performed must be attached.

You should communicate directly with the client through the information system (depending on the type of activity) and have an overview of the occupancy of all employees. The system must therefore also contain a common calendar. All documents required by the employees for a smooth work, as well as descriptions of the procedures, the occupancy of the premises and the cars / working machines must be attached. At the same time, it has to inform us about critical paths, missed tasks, traffic jams and similar particularities. In short – the information system must provide all data in one place and must not duplicate work. In all this we must also think about safety, although this can cause some
problems, especially when working from a distance.

Information project office - Milan Krajnc

Such information systems are expensive, so we can also use partial solutions or simple web applications, which we turn into intranets. In this way we mainly combine data from different programs and combine them in one place. It must allow the delegation of tasks from one place and an overview by project. It is important that the information environment is user-friendly and above all easy to use.

If the project offices are not used by everyone involved, the system will not deliver the desired results. However, this can have fatal consequences for the analyzes and reports that are available to management at all times. It is therefore important that the implementation of information solutions does not begin until the project management program is fully prepared.

Avtor - Milan Krajnc
Author of the article: Milan Krajnc, pedagogue, entrepreneur & crisis manager I teach you to look “at yourself” as a third person. For more information or an introductory meeting, write to me at official@milankrajnc.com

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Fulfilling children's dreams - Milan Krajnc
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The fulfillment of childrens’s dreams

Many people come to me because they have lost the meaning of life, they do not find a goal, they donot know what to do…

My task is to find the meaning of life in them and help them to find a meaning in this life.

– Milan Krajnc –

Blog - Milan Krajnc

Of course, I do not set them a goal, but only guide them along the way.

Because when we are born into this world, we are born with a goal, but through education and
different life situations we lose this memory.

I remember my dreams very well, even if I have lost them in some circle… but now I just follow the way
I feel and these dreams come towards me, I do not do anything faster, I just let go and take steps as I
feel..

As a child I knew that I would connect the visible and the invisible world, that I would give meaning to the unknown.

When I was 10 years old I carried books about space home, wrote seminar papers on lasers in primary
school, had a laboratory at home and mixed soaps that smelled bad, sailed under metallurgists,
studied physics, specialized in psychotherapy, lectured on project management at the university,
became a master of Reiki, theta healing… and all sorts of… and now suddenly all this knowledge helps
me to discover the potential of people and places… Basically hidden potentials are these wonders that
are just forgotten knowledge and everyone of us has them within us.

Already in 2003 I started among other things with the reorganization of communities, because I quickly realized that they had a fundamental problem… Mayor, everyone came from their own history and was responsible for several thousand people at once, namely that each of his decisions could have fatal consequences for their future. That is why I founded the Mayor’s Academy, where they slowly came and were interested in how they could lead the community differently. This was followed by the development of municipal strategies based on their potential. This is how the scale of Municipal Development Potential was born, which we have been publishing for all of Europe at SE since 2006. Namely, if Europe wants to develop, it must do so with its roots, the local communities, giving them only one incentive to develop their potential. Even then, I saw that it was enough for me to go around the place and see what their potential is and what is unused or where they are making a mistake. So I already developed Dynamic Model for the management of Public Administration, which will only see
the light of day at the end of this year in the form of a book.

But now, when I set up different educational programs in different places, I see that I know how to connect the potentials of the environment and people with each other… so that I can make the invisible part visible.

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Every place holds a secret, a forgotten history and every human being has a part of this history within himself… now these voices are awakening and everyone who awakens hears the call of this place… the time has come when Warriors Awaken, when the fighters return home from the fighting.

So my dreams have finally come true, and I am living them to the fullest.

Your time has come too!

Avtor - Milan Krajnc
Author of the article: Milan Krajnc, pedagogue, entrepreneur & crisis manager I teach you to look “at yourself” as a third person. For more information or an introductory meeting, write to me at official@milankrajnc.com
Unresponsiveness, or having time for yourself - Milan Krajnc
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Unresponsiveness: Or have time for yourself!

A few days ago I deactivated my personal Facebook account because it contained too much
information. Namely, I end each day with an analysis of the day, how I used the day and what I gained,
I make a plan for the next day, so that I can clear my thoughts and the whole mess in my head… I do
not bring psychological garbage into the world of dreams.

And to clear my emotions, I always recorded what happened during the day in the form of a personal storey with an instructive epilogue. This was followed by over 180,000 people, and then there was an unusually large response, although I did not want to get involved in comments, personal messages… The people saw themselves in it, they felt solutions for themselves, that they were not alone… and
there were countless messages, so I decided to step back for a while to rest my thoughts. So now I just write these business blogs, here… And it kind of made me think about how deeply committed we are in this digital world. Because I had dozens of unanswered messages and just did not have any physical success… then e-mails, phone calls, acquaintances, in short, I started to be very selective in order not to drown in this mass of information…

And because I used to be very responsive and spoiled a lot of people, I disappointed them now with my inability to react immediately… which I saw in the insulting comments… but I just could not do it if I wanted to survive, which I have mentioned several times in various records. However, this was not heard… and everyone wanted confirmation… until I reached the point where I was able to sever all communication. And now, everyone is left without anything…

I first noticed this addiction or obsession with digitalization in 1999, uffff years ago, I do not know it by heart, because my brain has shrunk completely due to the information provided… when I wrote all the manuals for MS OFFICE 2000 and MS Project 2000, and from 2003 to 2008 I even gave lectures at the faculty of Civil Engineering, UM, at the Department of Transportation and Construction Informatics, Project Management… so I was purely focused on digitalization.

Unresponsiveness, or having time for yourself - Milan Krajnc

Recently, when I set up the Dynamic Model of Guiding in Reality, where everything is based on natural processes, my phone was too busy… so now I always have a ringing in silence, e-mails, answer only at the end of the day or only on Sunday evening… to even feel that I live in this real world, not in the
world we created to make our lives easier, but we became prisoners.

So I am actually drawn back to the way it was when we were growing up… without digitization… even though it’s mostly about self-discipline, as it happens to me now, when I do not carry digital things anymore… which means I am there for others, recklessly, not for business… I do not know what all this…

But at least I feel and live.

Apparently I had to go through all these phases to finally feel alive, even if I am reckless!

Avtor - Milan Krajnc

Author of the article: Milan Krajnc, pedagogue, entrepreneur & crisis manager
I teach you to look “at yourself” as a third person. For more information or an introductory meeting, write to me at official@milankrajnc.com

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Prisoners of Virtual Order - Milan Krajnc
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Prisoners of apparent order!

Every day we listen more and more to how it is necessary to start working on a project, but nobody
knows exactly what that means. Most people are convinced that these are projects, just calls for
proposals, where you apply with an idea. What we really do. We can look at everything about the
project, including how you work.

What exactly is a project?

A project is a one-off action that has a clear goal and at the same time clearly outlines the path you need to take, when it starts, which path you need to take, when and where you will reach the goal.

Is not that the way to work?

Imagine that in the morning you are sitting in a car or on a bicycle, totally confused, and you are just starting to drive, and then you pass a bar where you see a friend and have a coffee with him, and when you get hungry you remember that he is close to home, a mutual acquaintance, and that he always has
something in the fridge, and then all three of you go to the shop to drink a dozen beers; and you sit by the river and reminisce about your youth… and you never came to work!

Now, one day a year you can afford the excuse that you are sick, but what if every day was like this and all people were like this… you’d be living in total chaos. Although, most of us have that feeling, and then we create a virtual order and float between these four walls, and we make it feel like we are in a regular job … and the result of that day is worse than spending the whole day with friends.

Prisoners of apparent order! Milan Krajnc

I have not started writing, I just want to show how we live in an empty space and set ourselves task after task and such tasks without a clear – ultimate goal, just to be distracted because we do not know what we really need to do. That is why some people go to the extreme and organize their private life in a project or, in other words, plan their life to the second. When they say that project work is needed at every turn, even in their private lives. Because only by taking the military route can we remain organized. We human beings have the feeling that we are always getting out of balance and going from one extreme to the other. The result at the weekend is fatigue and very little real reward.

When I write this article, I am constantly referring to human qualities and nature, but we must be aware that it is our qualities that also create processes in the business environment. And if we have not built up a solid personality, we very quickly submit or surrender to the environment or, if the environment has no clear boundaries, we let our personality come alive in the business environment.

That is why we cannot say that companies are equal to each other, because every manager and every group of employees has different characteristics and from this a different process is created, regardless of the fact that companies have the same activity and the same product.

There was a time when companies resorted to the ISO standard, but it served more for marketing than for the actual organization of work. The ISO standard clearly defined the processes and rules to be followed, but did not interfere with people’s nature and habits. To those who introduced it, it seemed perfectly normal for employees to work as they accepted the instructions. Perhaps this really happened, and most thought that by following this standard they would also create order in their personal lives, but human nature is stronger than external factors. Therefore the standard ISO is just an inscription on the wall.

And the companies have once again found themselves in the chaos of a decade ago. The pressure on employees is even greater that more work is needed. And if we take the time actually used and compare it with the company’s income, we find that we are still wasting too much time in vain or, as electricians would say, paying for too much “wasted” energy.

Prisoners of apparent order! Milan Krajnc

So the best form in these times proved to be Project Office. A project office is not just an office where someone carries out projects, but a way of thinking, not one that keeps you trapped in your own thoughts and projects, but a way of thinking that begins to set you free and restore order in your life.

So what is the crucial point that makes one Project Office better than others? As I said at the beginning, it is a project with a clear beginning and end. So the way of thinking of a project teaches us to set clear goals, to have a beginning and an end.

Why is it important to get things done? If we do not finish the project, this thought – the thought – is spinning around in our head over and over again, and when it flies so “freely” through our subconscious, it creates psychological garbage, which is created more and more every day and kills our creativity or. the freedom and peace in our head. Therefore it is important to draw conclusions so that we can move forward.

The project has three phases: Preparation, implementation and conclusion.

All three phases take the same amount of time, although we are used to 95% of the implementation time. Here I am talking about the natural cycle, spring, summer, autumn and winter. The project preparation is like spring, Implementing Summer and Completing Autumn, and all three cycles are of equal length. Winter is a break, a resting place, because this is also an important part of the project
work. There must always be a pause between projects. Especially to rest our thoughts.

When setting up a project work method, the main thing is to eliminate as much empty space as possible from our thoughts and our lives, the “reactive energy”.

How do you set up a Project Office in a company?

Setting up a project office starts with the way of thinking. We have to treat the working day as a project. When we come to work in the morning, we first make an appointment with ourselves, set a goal for the day and define the way to get there as precisely as possible, so we make a daily plan that we try to follow, I am talking about writing down all the activities on your computer or on a piece of paper. Also determine under what conditions… e.g. we need peace, i.e. switch off all distractions (phone, Facebook, Skype). We try to stick to this plan as much as possible, and at the end of the working day we make another meeting with ourselves – we check if we have achieved all the tasks and goals set or not. At the same time, we start working on a plan for the next day, i.e. we make the same plan as you did this morning, so just check tomorrow morning to see what to expect. This means preparing for the day and also finishing it.

Prisoners of apparent order! Milan Krajnc

What do we do with it? By writing some things down, our mind no longer thinks of all the written information, but has the information that everything is collected in one place and it is no longer a matter of not forgetting something, but of developing new ideas or putting them down in writing. Order begins to establish itself in our mind. So we start doing business at work and no longer take it home with us. This is how we start to reduce negative stress by 30%.

It is basically a training, and we start to repeat this way of working, which takes 15 minutes a day, every day for the next three weeks.

After three weeks, we start planning for the whole week, setting daily targets in the weekly plan, because there is still a daily plan, and after the weekly plan, we move on to monthly planning, where only weekly targets are set, and then to annual planning, which in practice is called the annual plan.

So the way of thinking of the project is not something new, it is just a way of moving from one form of action to another, more orderly, and at the same time it does not allow us to return to the original chaos, because we are basically shaping our personality or. one could say we are becoming much more mature.

When we have mastered this way of thinking, we begin to introduce the same concept among the employees, or, in other words, let us begin with this concept of leadership. You will certainly say that you have weekly meetings anyway, but it is a system of meetings. Meetings should be divided into three levels.

Prisoners of apparent order! Milan Krajnc

The first part is intended to solve organizational problems, i.e. what bothers us in the company or hinders us in our daily work, such as communication, lack of materials, relationship with employees. When we finish the first part, we draw conclusions and also write them down. Maybe someone would say that such unimportant things are for the end; but we must be aware that just such things are like a stone in a shoe, there is no way we can relax to reach the final goal.

In the second part of the course, we will deal with development and marketing activities that are designed to direct our thoughts into the future and thus prepare the mind to overcome more easily the problems we will encounter in the last, third part of the course.

The third part is dedicated to projects. Here we review all phases, divide the tasks and solve the problems. By first freeing our minds from insignificant problems, we can now solve real projects that are our main concern and will allow us to survive.

Each sentence should not last longer than 15 minutes, i.e. 45 minutes in total. If a project needs to be worked on separately, only the team meets, so that everyone in the team can listen.

We do the course twice a week, we divide the tasks on Monday, we check the implementation on Thursday. On Friday we do not plan anything, but leave a day to realize things that are important for existence but not vital, and so we slowly prepare for the weekend.

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Of course you will ask yourself, but who works only four days today, because if you want to survive, you have to work 24 hours. That is not true!

It is necessary to put the human being, that is, oneself, in the foreground. We must not subordinate ourselves to business, because business is for us, not us for him. And we really must learn to enjoy ourselves more. And the project-oriented way of working and thinking teaches us exactly that.

To distinguish between private and business life and to be much more efficient in business.

Namely that there is too much empty space in business and private life. The above theory of colleges did indeed develop from the flowing of a river in nature. When the river flows, it is drinkable and clear, when it is dammed, it has a bad smell and taste. It is the same with the flow of information. If we do
not have the information we need to work or live smoothly, we begin to create an unrealistic picture, and this creates an empty space in our lives (This is a dynamic communication model, which is described in more detail in the book: “Between things and doing is all ocean” ).

So as soon as we have mastered this way of communicating with our employees, we start thinking in a project-oriented way. And only now can we start reorganizing or. setting up a Project Office. Because this is how we created the basis, and with the slowly changing habits, the environment was not even aware of it. Everything else is now just a technical set-up.

We see that everything happens in our heads, so we first have to create order in our heads so that the mess does not fall back on our environment.

Prisoners of apparent order! Milan Krajnc

Each Activity under the project must have a clear indication of what its purpose is and how it will affect the objective of the project, who is responsible for it and who will carry it out, how it relates to other contractors and tasks, the factors and tasks on which it depends, when it starts and when it must end. The financial factor is very important: the hourly rate of the person who will carry out the project, the price of the material and all other costs and profits.

Project management is an orderly way of working. It is clear who does what and what their responsibilities are. The individual is fully responsible for his work.

Setting up a project office is actually a process of reorganizing any organization. The process is similar whether the project work is introduced in a company or in a public institution, community and the like.

A time-consuming and expensive process

The first step is to “clean up” and edit, which includes an analysis of the work process to show us the time constraints. We first have to start with ourselves, create order and set up an organized approach according to common guidelines.

Setting up a project office in a fixed environment is a time-consuming and expensive process. That is why we have to tackle the reorganization step by step. First, a so-called project management office, sometimes known as an investment management service, must be set up. Here, projects are prepared with the relevant departments and then implemented. In this case, the project office has the role of a supervisor and assistant.

Gradually, the way the project works is moving from large investments to regular work. This organizational form of the system is suitable for large companies and state and municipal administration. For small companies or those in the process of being established, it is advisable to reorganize the project at a certain point in time or to start project work as soon as they enter the market.

Far beyond Scandinavia and Japan

The success of a project-organized company also depends on external factors. In practice, however, it can quickly collapse here. After all, the state should also create the conditions for project operation: Change laws, accelerate administrative processes and simplify administrative procedures. As reality is
still far from what we would like to see, we will certainly not find a company in Slovenia that would work entirely according to the rules of the project office.

However, this should not be an excuse for not introducing improvements. Nevertheless, such work can change a lot if we only mention the effective delegation of tasks, the assumption of responsibility and the rethinking of employees. In Europe the conditions for a project office are successfully created by the Scandinavian countries, in Asia by Japan.

The project plan must be very precise

Each Activity under the project must have a clear indication of what its purpose is and how it will affect the objective of the project, who is responsible for it and who will carry it out, how it relates to other contractors and tasks, the factors and tasks on which it depends, when it starts and when it must end. The financial factor is very important: the hourly rate of the person who will carry out the project, the
price of the material and all other costs and profits.

All these are data that we have to enter into the plan. It is best to make the plan in the form of a table and add a column for realization during the execution. This way we have a realistic picture of the project all the time and see where the deviation comes from. Let’s not forget to set milestones to review the subgoals and measures in case of deviation from the plan.

What is a project?

A project is a one-time undertaking, it is a series of tasks aimed at the same goal, it is limited in time with a known beginning and end.

For and against the project office

Advantages

Order and transparency of processes

Lower costs

Secure transactions

Simplify processes

Relief of the employees

Slabosti

Long introduction due to changes in thinking

Chaos if everyone does not follow the rules

Emotionally feel like we are running out of gas

Author of the article: Milan Krajnc, pedagogue, entrepreneur & crisis manager
I teach you to look “at yourself” as a third person. For more information or an introductory meeting, write to me at official@milankrajnc.com

He is the Author of the Dynamic Model of Business Management, based on natural laws. The ultimate goal of DMV is the operation of the company as a Project Office. You can order his books at:

An electronic version of the book can be ordered here.

Avtor - Milan Krajnc
Author of the article: Milan Krajnc, pedagogue, entrepreneur & crisis manager I teach you to look “at yourself” as a third person. For more information or an introductory meeting, write to me at official@milankrajnc.com
Project office - Milan Krajnc
CategoriesLatest posts

Project office

In the last period there has been a great demand for the establishment of Project Office in the company or in some organizational units. However, I see that they are only now beginning to think about what the project is about. When I carried out the analysis according to the bibliography, I found 53 professional articles describing Project Management and Project Office, although there were many more… but somehow I thought that maybe I would summarize all the knowledge in a new article. Although the book Project Office: Dynamic Leadership will be published by the end of the year, thisshould be an introduction.

A project is a sequence of moments, consisting of the beginning, the execution and the end. Between the second and the first project there is always a pause… if the projects are not too much connected and a straight line is formed. Think of this as a heartbeat… vibration… life… straight line… death…

And when we look at life in this way, we see that everything can be a project, a trip to work, a conversation with a friend… even if someone says we only have processes… yes, that is true, but the process is made up of several smaller operations, and each operation has to be started, executed and finished, so the process is basically the sum of the projects.

We would say that project management is basically a purely natural process. Let us look at the year: spring (start), summer (execution), fall (end), winter (pause) or look at the day morning (start), day (performance), evening (end), night (break). It is basically a purely natural process, which means that we should do everything like this.

We forget all the moments, we do not have breaks, we do not prepare at all, but we do what we do and we very rarely finish because we are already in a hurry for the next project.

Project office - Milan Krajnc

so completely unnatural… so we have to go back to nature… in fact, now is such a time… if we do not want to break down. In fact, nature is already making choices, those who live so fast also die fast, heart failure, brain hemorrhage, accident, by cell phone while driving…

Basically we have no choice but to organize our day as a project like the natural cycle. But such a transition will not be easy, so it is necessary to build a bridge… and that bridge is called the Project Office… yes, of course Project Office is also an artificial creation, but it is absolutely necessary to change from one system to another.

Nature does not have Project Office, but everything happens as it should… because of the natural cycle, namely nature only gives impulses when something has to happen, and the role of the project office… must give an impulse when something has to be done.

The project office must be established within the company, as a special department that will grow into the operation of the whole company in the long term, and so the company will function on a completely natural basis.

We start by setting up a project office by first listing all the processes that take place in the company, dividing them into those that are repetitive (daily operations) and those that occur only once (investments, process renewal), and then we divide them into the phases in which they are in: Start, implementation, completion.

Of course, it is necessary to have a clear goal of the company and a clear strategy and to classify the projects according to the strategy. At the same time it is necessary to optimize the business processes so that everything we have delayed can now be prepared in one piece and in parallel with the training of the employees or. in another way. The dynamic communication model, which is already completely in harmony with the natural process, has worked best here.

Dinamični model vodenja. Milan Krajnc. Tiskana knjiga.

Once we know exactly what the work process looks like and what types of projects are repeating, we can start thinking about software support. First we have to look at information and business systems, whether the information can be linked together or how we can update everything together… only then
we start to think about a project management application.

The role of Project Office is essentially a coordination center where all information, deadlines, responsibilities, documentation are collected, and above all it is a great reminder and basis for controlling.

Project managers are never in the Project Office, but the project office is only their support, unless it happens that everyone works only for the sake of the Project Office; it becomes an end in itself. However, the size depends on the size and type of the projects. In principle, the project office… would have deputy project managers for more details, write to contact@project-office.at or wait for the book.

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List of professional articles on Project Management and Project Office, in Cobiss under the number .: 91024:

  1. KRAJNC PAVLICA, Milan. Reorganization, optimization, rationalization: What does it actually mean when we reorganize, optimize or rationalize a company or processes ? Entrepreneur. [Printed Ed.], May 2006, Volume 15, No. 5, p. 34-36, Fig. [COBISS.SI- ID 20650296]
  2. KRAJNC PAVLICA, Milan. Challenging reorganization: project management and internal project office. Business Assistance , May 2006, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 12-15, Fig., tables. [COBISS.SI- ID 20672056], p.12-15, Fig., tables.
  3. KRAJNC PAVLICA, Milan. What is a project office? : Only a percentage of the respondents work like this. Business Assistance , May 2006, Volume 1, No. 2, p. 19-22, Fig. [COBISS.SI- ID 20673080], p. 19-22, ill.
  4. KRAJNC PAVLICA, Milan. Office for Information Projects. Business Assistance , May 2006, Volume 1, No. 2, p. 25, Fig. [COBISS.SI- ID 20672312].
  5. KRAJNC PAVLICA, Milan. The success of a project depends on ourselves: we are the ones who design the processes and create the projects. Business Assistance , May 2006, Volume 1, No. 2, p. 28, Fig. [COBISS.SI- ID 20672568].
  6. KRAJNC PAVLICA, Milan. The influence of personal goals on project progress. Proj. network Slov., jun. 2006, Volume 9, No. 2, pp. 30-33 [COBISS.SI- ID 16363750]
  7. KRAJNC PAVLICA, Milan, KRAJNC PAVLICA, Simona. With project management against the crisis in the company. Proj. network Slov., Dec. 2006, volume 9, no. 3, p. 39-41 [COBISS.SI- ID 20651832].
  8. KRAJNC PAVLICA, Milan. Stress in the palm of the hand. Project Office , January 6, 2006, Volume 2, No. 1. [COBISS.SI- ID 20833336]
  9. KRAJNC PAVLICA, Milan. A project like a stage: “We have to live life and not play! Project office, 25 February. 2006, volume 2, no. 4. [COBISS.SI- ID 20834616] 
  10. KRAJNC PAVLICA, Milan. Software development. Project Office , 10 March 2006, Volume 2, No. 5
    [COBISS.SI- ID 20834360]
  11. RAJNC PAVLICA, Milan. Project: commercial and residential buildings. Project Office , April 11, 2006, Volume 2, No. 7. [COBISS.SI- ID 20835128]
  12. KRAJNC PAVLICA, Milan. Project indicators. Project Office , 11 April 2006, Volume 2, No. 7 [COBISS.SI- ID 20834872]
  13. KRAJNC PAVLICA, Milan. Project management against “organized chaos”: Tools: Strategy. Entrepreneur. [Printed ed.], Feb. 2005, volume 14, no. 2, p. 42-44, fig. [COBISS.SI- ID 20652600]
  14. KRAJNC PAVLICA, Milan. Project management. Project office, 7 March. 2005, volume 1, no. 2 [COBISS.SI- ID 20835384]
  15. KRAJNC PAVLICA, Milan. Project management in public institutions. Project Office , 25th August 2005, Volume 1, No. 9. [COBISS.SI- ID 20838456]
  16. KRAJNC PAVLICA, Milan. Management of real estate projects. Project Office , 25 August 2005, Volume 1, No. 9. [COBISS.SI- ID 20837944]
  17. KRAJNC PAVLICA, Milan. Project management in waste management. Project Office , 25 August 2005, Volume 1, No. 9 [COBISS.SI- ID 20840504]
  18. KRAJNC PAVLICA, Milan. Project management in consulting. Project Office , 25th August 2005, Volume 1, No. 9. [COBISS.SI- ID 20836664]
  19. KRAJNC PAVLICA, Milan. Project management in banking. Project Office , 25 August 2005, Volume 1, No. 9 [COBISS.SI- ID 20836920]
  20. KRAJNC PAVLICA, Milan. Project management in associations. Project Office , 25 August 2005, Volume 1, No. 9 [COBISS.SI- ID 20838968]
  21. KRAJNC PAVLICA, Milan. Project management in ecology. Project Office , 25 August 2005, Volume 1, No. 9 [COBISS.SI- ID 20840248].
  22. KRAJNC PAVLICA, Milan. Project management in civil engineering. Project Office, August 25, 2005, Volume 1, No. 9 [COBISS.SI- ID 20839736]
  23. KRAJNC PAVLICA, Milan. Project management in computer science. Project Office , August 25, 2005, Volume 1, No. 9. [COBISS.SI- ID 20839992]
  24. KRAJNC PAVLICA, Milan. Project management in education. Project Office , 25 August 2005, Volume 1, No. 9 [COBISS.SI- ID 20842552]
  25. KRAJNC PAVLICA, Milan. Project management in the personnel department. Project Office , 25 August 2005, Volume 1, No. 9 [COBISS.SI- ID 20839480]
  26. KRAJNC PAVLICA, Milan. Project management in agriculture. Project Office , 25 August 2005, Volume 1, No. 9 [COBISS.SI- ID 20840760]
  27. KRAJNC PAVLICA, Milan. Project management. Project Office , August 25, 2005, Volume 1, No. 9. [COBISS.SI- ID 20836408]
  28. KRAJNC PAVLICA, Milan. Project management in marketing. Project Office , August 25, 2005, Volume 1, No. 9 [COBISS.SI- ID 20842808]
  29. KRAJNC PAVLICA, Milan. Project management in the media. Project Office , 25 August 2005, Volume 1, No. 9 [COBISS.SI- ID 20842296]
  30. KRAJNC PAVLICA, Milan. Project management for the organization of events. Project Office , 25 August 2005, volume 1, no. 9 [COBISS.SI- ID 20855608].
  31. KRAJNC PAVLICA, Milan. Project management in the accounting department. Project Office, August 25, 2005, Volume 1, No. 9. [COBISS.SI- ID 20837432]
  32. KRAJNC PAVLICA, Milan. Project management in development agencies. Project Office , 25 August 2005, Volume 1, No. 9 [COBISS.SI- ID 20838712]
  33. KRAJNC PAVLICA, Milan. Project management in development. Project Office , 25 August 2005, Volume 1, No. 9. [COBISS.SI- ID 20842040]
  34. KRAJNC PAVLICA, Milan. Project management in the branch. Project Office , 25 August 2005, Volume 1, No. 9 [COBISS.SI- ID 20841016]
  35. KRAJNC PAVLICA, Milan. Project management in tourism. Project Office, 25 August 2005, Volume 1, No. 9 [COBISS.SI- ID 20841784].
  36. KRAJNC PAVLICA, Milan. Project management in chambers. Project Office , 25 August 2005, Volume 1, No. 9 [COBISS.SI- ID 20837688]
  37. KRAJNC PAVLICA, Milan. Project management in relations. Project Office , 25th August 2005, Volume 1, No. 9. [COBISS.SI- ID 20839224]
  38. KRAJNC PAVLICA, Milan. Project management in gastronomy. Project Office , August 29, 2005,Volume 1, No. 10 [COBISS.SI- ID 20856376].
  39. KRAJNC PAVLICA, Milan. The female age of entrepreneurship. Project Office , August 29, 2005, Volume 1, No. 10 [COBISS.SI- ID 20856120]
  40. KRAJNC PAVLICA, Milan. European Coordination Center . Project Office , August 29, 2005, Volume 1, No. 11. [COBISS.SI- ID 20856888]
  41. KRAJNC PAVLICA, Milan. Project management for traffic accidents. Project Office , 15 September 2005, Volume 1, No. 12 [COBISS.SI- ID 20857912].
  42. KRAJNC PAVLICA, Milan. Project management in car service. Project Office , 15 September 2005, Volume 1, No. 12 [COBISS.SI- ID 20857400].
  43. KRAJNC PAVLICA, Milan. Project management in insurance companies. Project Office , 15 September 2005, Volume 1, No. 12 [COBISS.SI- ID 20858168].
  44. KRAJNC PAVLICA, Milan. Also with project management we can accelerate the development ! Project office, 9 December 2005, Volume 1, No. 16 [COBISS.SI- ID 20835640].
  45. KRAJNC PAVLICA, Milan. Peacefully against the crisis: We speak of a crisis in a company when the company has lost control of the key factors that influence its operations and work processes. Entrepreneur. [Printed Ed.], Nov. 2004, Vol. 13, No. 11, pp. 36-37, ill. [COBISS.SI- ID 15023846]
  46. KRAJNC PAVLICA, Milan. Project management in the personnel department. Managing Director, Jan. 2006, Volume 1, No. 3, p. 25 [COBISS.SI- ID 20650040]
  47. KRAJNC PAVLICA, Milan. The state will always have enough money for the right projects and capable people. Weekly (Ptuj), 17 October 2002, Volume 55, No. 42, p. 3, Fig. [COBISS.SI- ID 49982977]
  48. KRAJNC PAVLICA, Milan, KRAJNC PAVLICA, Simona. The destination – for someone who knows where he is sailing to, the wind is always favorable. In: PALČIČ, Iztok, publisher (s). Project Forum 2007, Podčetrtek, 13-15 June 2007. Project Excellence: A collection of lectures. Ljubljana: Slovenian Association for Project Management, 2007, pp. 124-129. [COBISS.SI- ID 20641336]
  49. HAUC, Gregor, KRAJNC PAVLICA, Milan. Strategic goals – how do we check whether we are on the right track? In: PALČIČ, Iztok, Editor (s). Project Forum 2007, Podčetrtek, 13-15 June 2007. Project Excellence: A collection of lectures. Ljubljana: Slovenian Association for Project Management, 2007, p. 229-234. [COBISS.SI- ID 20641592]
  50. ŠUMAN, Nataša, KRAJNC PAVLICA, Milan, KRAJNC PAVLICA, Simona, JANC, Andreja. The process of renovation of the construction company RIMA d.o.o. In: PALČIČ, Iztok, publisher (s). Project Forum of Slovenian Association for Project Management, Radenci, 4-6 June 2008. With projects for leadership in the EU: a collection of lectures. Ljubljana: Slovenian Association for Project Management, 2008, pp. 231-240 [COBISS.SI- ID 12337174].
  51. KRAJNC PAVLICA, Milan. Reorganization of the work process with the help of project management with emphasis on taking responsibility for human resources. In: STARE, Aljaž, publisher (s). Project Forum of Slovenian Association for Project Management 2005, Otočec, 9 and 10 June 2005.
    With projects to a higher value! : Collection of lectures. Ljubljana: Slovenian Association for Project Management, 2005, p. 195-200. [COBISS.SI- ID 20640056]
  52. KRAJNC PAVLICA, Milan. The impact of personal goals on project objectives. In: SEMOLIČ, Brane (ed.), KERIN, Andrej (ed.), STARE, Aljaž (ed.). Book with abstracts and congress program. Ljubljana: ZPM
    Slovenian Project Management Association: = ZPM Slovenian Project Management Association, 2006, p. 32 [COBISS.SI- ID 20641080].
  53. Project Office. Krajnc Pavlica , Milan (Publisher 2005-2010). Ptuj: Sirius, 2005-2010. ISSN 1854- 1240. http://www.projektnapisarna.com. [COBISS.SI- ID 217724672
Avtor - Milan Krajnc
Author of the article: Milan Krajnc, pedagogue, entrepreneur & crisis manager I teach you to look “at yourself” as a third person. For more information or an introductory meeting, write to me at official@milankrajnc.com
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