CategoriesLatest posts Life for two Women

What does a woman think when a man doesn’t answer?

What does a woman think when a man doesn't answer?

When someone ignores you, it’s not pleasant. When that happens, you start thinking about what you did wrong. Maybe you said something? Maybe you shouldn’t send that message?

There’s no point in spending days or even weeks analyzing what stopped a man from sending you a message. It is what it is, you have no control over it anymore.

 

It’s hard for a woman to accept ignorance. Especially if the man has confided a lot to her. Maybe he told her about his passions and plans and made her feel like an important part of his life.

She was by his side as he struggled with himself and his demons. She believed that all he needed was time and space, and she gave it to him, believing that in time he would become the person she loved.

She wanted to know all his fears, secrets, and the darkest parts of his soul, and no matter what happened, she would always love him. She saw something special in him and she was fighting for him in her own way.  And then suddenly he stopped answering her messages and calls. Minutes, hours, days, weeks, months passed.

During that time, she would message and talk with him on that way.  She was thinking too much. Thousands of questions buzzed in her head, “Why did he suddenly stop writing me when we were doing so well? What had happened? What had changed? Did I do something wrong? What are the reasons for his sudden withdrawal? Does he have another wife?”

So many questions, but not a single answer to comfort her troubled mind.

She can’t help it and keeps thinking it’s her fault he withdrew. She scours the messages trying to figure out what she did wrong, but it only confuses her more.

She can only guess what’s going on in his head. Of course, it would be easier for her if she knew exactly why he ignored her. As it is, she can only guess, and that leads her into a vicious cycle of pain.

Is it really easier to ignore someone and risk losing them than to tell them you are overwhelmed, or that you have fallen in love with someone else, or that you are afraid of commitment, or…?

When a man ignores a woman, he’s just teaching her how to live without him!

A woman knows very well that if you really love someone, you don’t ignore them. When you love, you can’t give love and feelings on the waitlist because that does’t make sense. That’s not love.

Don’t be surprised when her passion turns to ice. When her gentle words turn bitter. And when she looks at you, you will see nothing in her eyes. She’ll look right through you since you taught her how to stop loving you.

Don’t be surprised when she leaves you, because you never gave her a reason to stay.

So men, if you want to have a happy woman, turn off the phone and focus only on her (even if it’s just for an intense half hour a day). Love her, pamper her, and communicate with her.

Show your women with words and actions that you respect her!

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Avtor - Milan Krajnc

Author of the article: pedagogue, entrepreneur & crisis manager and Tina Orter.

For more information or an introductory meeting, write to me at official@milankrajnc.com

CategoriesDynamic Leadership Model Latest Latest posts Leadership model

The Dynamic Leadership Model – Youtube

The process of introducing change without shock is what I have named Dynamic Leadership Model. Throughout the process psychological exercises and organisational approaches are used which help us unload our burdens from the past through seven phases of transformation.

At this point we realize that the whole world is inside us and that it is only ourselves we need to develop – from within! This is how we can find our calling and develop the sunny side of our lives.


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Avtor - Milan Krajnc

Author of the article: pedagogue, entrepreneur & crisis manager
I teach you to look “at yourself” as a third person. For more information or an introductory meeting, write to me at official@milankrajnc.com

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Dynamic Leadership model

The purpose of the book is to present a dynamic leadership model, which in more than a hundred cases has proven to be a great way to get out of business and personal crisis and how to overcome difficulties without even going into crisis.


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CategoriesLatest posts

THE NEXT LEVEL OF AKBS CERTIFICATIONS: IMPROVING BUSINESS FROM THE BEGINNING

This program is designed to develop your abilities in corporate finance, human resources and business modeling. The key is to improve business from the beginning.

The Corporate Finance Management Certification was created with the interaction of the Economy Business, Law Business and Open World Programs in order to deliver high-quality content certification at the lowest price of the market (100 GBP FULL CERTIFICATION)

The Certification can be completed in the term of 2 months and includes 5 chapters: Business Modelling, Business Resources, Business Psychology, Corporate Finance Management and the Final Dissertation.
The program has three basic benefits:

    • 20 credits course to continue your studies trough AKBS
    • Certificate of Achievement by AKBS
    • Self-paced course
The Corporate Finance Management Certification includes the learning business model developed by Prof. Dr. Milan Kranjc, from AKBS Open World, who has been officially nominated to the Nobel Prize of Economic Sciences 2021 by the European Center for Peace and Development, the University of Peace established by the United Nations, where he is also a full professor of Public Management.

About Dynamilogy

Dynamilogy is the active study of “living” processes and phenomena related to human and nature! It is a new branch of science that I formed based on physics, psychology, and economics.

It is decoding of nature’s secrets of a sort. Only if we look at nature, we see that everything is simple, that everything works on its own. And we often say that it would be great if it was like that also in our lives.

Let’s examine a diamond as an example. A diamond is made of carbon. But graphite is also made of carbon. The difference between the two is only in the atomic structure. And if we transfer this fact to our economy, how much graphite would we have to sell to get a value that is equal to the value of one sold diamond?

The whole secret is therefore in the right order. The code of nature is the right order. If we compare a business process or a process in personal life with natural processes, we quickly figure out what we are doing wrong. This way we will also quickly come up with a formula for success. All we need to do is to put the process in our personal or business life in the right order.

And in the end, you will realize that happiness is just a decision!

The aim of dynamilogy is to put a person before work and to reverse the course of the current chaos in the world.

The following models are derived from dynamilogy:

  1. The Dynamic Leadership Model, a business methodology that puts people first.
  2. The Dynamic Leadership Model for Administrative Systems on a Local Level, which puts the potential of the environment and people first.
  3. The Dynamic Communication Model, which creates a refined flow of information.
  4. Sirius Personal Transformation, a psychological method of self-discovery.
  5. Sirius Business Transformation, a business methodology of process reform.
  6. Project Office, a form of enterprise organisation with projects and project management as basic elements, representing a completely natural process.
  7. Dynamic Circle, organisation of one’s own life in order to accomplish inner peace.
  8. Dynamic Leader, a New Age business profession.
  9. Dynamic Manager, a New Age business management profession.
  10. Dynamic Engineer, a New Age profession for personality-based process planning.

Dynamic Leadership Model

The Dynamic Leadership Model is a business paradigm for the direction, organisation and communication strategies of a company that prevents the personalities of those people actively shaping the business process from influencing it.

The entire model is based on the laws of nature. It has been developed empirically on the basis of knowledge acquired through personal experience

It is best to introduce you to the operation of the Dynamic Management Model on a practical example:

My Friday morning meeting ended early so I decided to pop into the café for a cup of coffee. More than anything else I wanted to quickly answer some emails. On my way in, I noticed a friend from high school with whom I hadn’t been in touch for the past few years. We stared at each other and he gave me a vague smile, I could sense that he was not sitting in the darkest corner of the café by chance. So, I approached him with some uncertainty – actually I was a bit unsure if it would not be more appropriate just to politely nod from afar – and offered him my hand in greeting. ‘What happened to him?’, I wondered when I looked into his tired and grey face. His handshake was very soft and undetermined, completely different from what I remembered. Where in God’s name did this polite, self-confident young man who always knew what he wanted disappear to?

He invited me to the table and slowly we started talking. At the beginning there was some silence and obvious embarrassment, then he opened up to me. He told me his wife had left him a few months ago. On the same day his mother died. And on top of it all, he was involved in a serious car accident. All that on one unfortunate Tuesday in the middle of February. While we were talking, he glanced at women who passed by, nervously typed on his phone and constantly shifted in his seat. He was visibly distracted. And then for a few moments he became that boy from school. He congratulated himself for getting a promotion. Two months earlier he had become the director of a small multinational company. He described his gorgeous office and the great view it had, it was exactly like the one he had always imagined having. Suddenly he decided I needed to see it, since we had already met, so we left the café and went to his car. As he moved a bunch of crushed papers from the seat, he apologised  for there not being any place to sit. Empty bottles lay on the floor next to McDonalds leftovers and cans of Red Bull. I also noticed something that was not obvious in the darkness of the café: he had probably been wearing the same shirt for the second day in a row and was unshaven. As we set off he drove quickly, honking and complaining about other people’s driving.

We didn’t speak much on our way to the office since he was constantly talking on the phone. We parked in the garage and took the lift to the top floor. A friendly secretary welcomed us at the door.

When we stepped into his office I saw what I had expected to see. The blinds were left half-way down, the desk was completely hidden under a ton of papers, the bin was full. I straightforwardly asked him if he was having troubles at work as well? At first he was surprised – where was I getting such an idea? – and he even started to become a bit angry. Then he broke down.

I explained to him what kind of messages he was sending – with his appearance, irritated behaviour, neglected car and finally with his smelly, dark office. I looked him in the eyes and told him that everything I saw was a reflection of his subconscious. And, not to hurt or offend him, I added that I notice these things because it’s my job. Well, at that moment we probably both knew that his problems were obvious to everyone. However, I explained that I could help solve them.

What was his office telling me? The office blinds were drawn half-way down so that one could not see the view. The windows were not partially obscured because of the sunlight but because the wide view caused him to feel even more powerless. One cannot hide in a room filled with light. Clearly after everything that had fallen upon his shoulders in his personal life, he had found himself unable to handle the job with which he was entrusted. He was unable to prepare a new strategy for the company or find solutions for the challenges it faced. He no longer had a compass to guide either himself or the company towards the right path. Why did he lose his way? Why was his compass no longer working? Even his desk, overloaded with paperwork, was telling me that the company was facing difficult challenges. Problems from his personal life had found their way into his work. His life had started to revolve around problems: problems at home, problems with friends, problems at work… 

I felt that our accidental meeting had a purpose. When I explained to him how I had come to my conclusions, he went silent. This was the moment when he faced himself. I had helped him open his eyes and his burden began to lift. Because I had always valued his friendship, I gave him advice on how to go forward. We made a plan of action the very same day. On a piece of paper, we wrote what he must do. First he had to look inside himself, calm down and accept the given moment, only then could he start making decisions. As we left the office he approached his secretary and asked her to remove all the paperwork from his office, open the blinds and order cleaning. He told her to schedule a meeting with all the department managers on Tuesday.

I suggested he should go somewhere for the weekend and do something for himself. He agreed to take a short break for the benefit of his well-being. On Monday he called and told me he went to the coast for two days and even treated himself to a massage. Since we had agreed that I would help him, I asked him to describe the feelings he had felt when he was alone.

 ‘When I was lying on the massage table and looking through the glass wall towards the pool, which was already almost empty due to it being so late, I noticed how the water gradually became calmer. The massage made me sleepy and when I closed my eyes I imagined rough seas. Slowly everything started to relax, including my inner-self. I managed to breathe peacefully after a very long time.’

I explained to him that the environment is a reflection of his thoughts: when he directed his thoughts towards a gradually calming sea, he was also calming himself.

Tuesday was the day for a new beginning at the company. I was present at the management meeting, as a consultant. In the morning I went to see my friend, the director. He was in a completely different state than when I found him on Friday – and only four days had gone by. We quickly spoke about his short break, then I gave him a few pointers on how to run the meeting. At that point the secretary told us that the employees were already gathering in the conference room. 

‘His environment is a reflection of his thoughts.’

As we entered the noise subsided. The director greeted everyone and apologised for not having called the meeting earlier. He explained, as I had advised him, that he first needed to get to know the company a little better and establish what kind of problems the company was facing. Of course he couldn’t say to them that he felt completely lost when he took over the company. He introduced me as a good friend and a consultant. He explained that I will occasionally be present at the meetings. I noticed surprise on some faces and disapproval on others.

The meeting continued as planned. A short introduction of all the department managers followed. The director asked each of them to present the company through his or her own work and responsibilities, and also to explain where they were having problems and to present possible solutions and improvements. The administrative manager, who was sitting to my right, responded first. He explained that so far none of the previous directors had had any understanding of human resources, they always just expected and demanded maximum results from the employees, which often led to overloading and high stress among them and was resulting in an increasing number of sick leave requests and over the years led to high employee turnover. The administrative manager emphasised that he is hoping for more support and asked the director if he has a clear vision of where and how he intends to lead the company. In his opinion, this was essential when preparing an efficient human resources plan.

The company’s current ad-hoc approach to hiring did not enable them to get the best people. He also pointed out that, as an HR manager, he was mostly just putting out fires, and this had led to an even worse situation, of which he was unaware until only later. If unqualified or inappropriate people are hired, the results of these poor choices show in the long run in the work results. The director thanked him for his honest opinion and added that he himself has also noticed the increasing number of customer claims over the years. He said he would like to have a clear vision for hiring practices. Since he was not yet familiar enough with this subject, he asked the administrative manager to join a group which would prepare a strategic plan for the company. Although he was a bit surprised, the manager expressed a willingness to cooperate.

‘Quick changes cause even bigger problems.’

It was now the marketing director’s turn to speak. He also expressed his discontent with the current situation and the management approach thus far. His approach was perhaps slightly too confident or – to put it better – smug. Generally displeased, he stressed that the marketing department was primarily handling sales and that there was no sign of real marketing in the company thus far. He pointed out that he himself was adequately qualified and educated about corporate marketing practice and therefore suggested that, in the future, more attention should be paid to properly marketing the company. The general director, my friend, was consumed in his thoughts and staring in front of him. He listened carefully and stated that he found the marketing director’s way of thinking completely understandable, however he asked him to present a proposal of what should be done. Staff shortages were the first problem area, the marketing director pointed out. He also suggested an increase in the number of salespeople in the field and stressed that they should be present at various trade fairs more often.

The director nodded the whole time and then asked what kind of budget they would need for this. ‘I would be able to give you a more specific number once you tell me which direction you would like to navigate our ship. Without a clear course and expectations from management, I cannot give you an estimate’, the marketing director replied. Even though my friend had wanted to provoke him by asking for a specific figure he needed for marketing, the response pleasantly surprised him. Most people in such situations start looking for exits, usually in numbers. They start to calculate the amount they need for their own department, but in this case the marketing director responded very pragmatically and appropriately to the situation at hand. The director agreed and also asked him to join the new strategic group.

The production manager then spoke. As opposed to the previous two, he stated that everything was fine in his department, production was doing well. They all knew what their tasks and responsibilities were. He pointed out that there was a problem in marketing, they were not trying enough to secure projects on time and added that HR was sending them impossible employees.

When these opinions were expressed the tone of the meeting changed. Of course others at the table did not easily take criticism and vigorously denied the complaints. The finance director in particular fiercely rejected the accusations and asked mockingly, ‘And everything is fine in your department?! Oh, please! Your costs are the highest in the company!’

The verbal exchange continued with a sharp answer from the production manager. ‘Yes, of course. We also work the hardest! And you’re just along for the ride! We’re the ones earning your salary and therefore justifiably also expect the biggest support from your side, not that you just make our jobs difficult,’ he said. The finance director was not without a response, ‘If we are talking purchase costs, why do you always seek only one offer, and why have we been dealing with the same suppliers for years? And if I only look at how often you change your personal car, one would come to think you are getting some money on the side somewhere as well,’ she said.

 ‘Look, at least I can rely on my suppliers if I can’t rely on you,’ he replied. ‘I have managed to get 180-day-payment terms and even if we sometimes accidentally don’t pay on time, they understand. We always receive materials from them in time to complete the order. I do not have a family or children, so cars are my hobby. But I have no intention to talk about my personal life, there’s no reason’.

Since the tone of the conversation had become a bit rough, for some even offensive, I glanced at the director and hinted that it is time for him to calm the situation down. He stood up and at first just observed the co-workers. He only spoke when the employees stopped accusing each other.

He reminded them that the purpose of the meeting was to exchange opinions and that it must be held in a manner acceptable for everyone. If the production manager is unhappy about support, then we must focus on improvement.

The production manager was also invited to join the strategic group and was advised that he is expected to bring suggestions for improvement in his department and maybe also for procedures across the company. The production manager agreed that certain changes would be welcome. The finance director, although she was a bit offended, now continued with her presentation. She spoke mostly about project analyses which had shown that certain projects were too expensive and consequently bringing minimum profit. She stressed that she would like to have a more transparent overview of projects, especially financial indicators. This way she would know what the financial cost of certain operational steps are and be able to pinpoint where the highest costs come from. The director was deep in his thoughts, listening to the finance director and ultimately agreed with what she said. As she had also clearly presented the way she would like to manage project costs, she was also invited to join the strategic group.

The director asked all department managers to prepare proposals regarding their own departments by the next strategic management meeting and suggested they should cooperate with other departments as well. The proposals must include solutions for the flow of communication within the department and a list of which employees would be needed in which positions.

After the management meeting, the employees scattered back to their offices. The director and I went to his office, now very clean, and performed a short analysis of the management meeting. The first thing we established was that the employees were only interested in what is going on in their own  departments. Therefore, an outside observer gets the feeling that the company is made up of four separate units, we could almost say that there are four companies in one and that instead of working together towards a single goal they are competing with each other. At least that is how their managers behave. Each of them has built their own garden and was cultivating it according to his or her own convictions. But no one was looking after good, neighbourly relations. The company cannot function successfully this way in the long run.

We also analysed the management meetings held under the previous leadership. They were organised every Monday and often lasted an unbelievable ten hours, usually from nine in the morning until seven in the evening. The main topic was usually solving problems and mutual accusations, so they mostly served as an opportunity for some directors to release their anger rather than discuss any actual creative solutions. At the end of each meeting they reached some sort of understanding, however they never agreed on any concrete solutions for the future – actionable items were missing. Because the current managers were used to things functioning this way, I had to make sure that the new director would not continue the patterns of the previous one. Since the team of managers remained the same, I knew that together they could overpower the new director if he did not immediately show them clear leadership.

First we needed to establish rules for how management meetings would be held. We decided on three kinds of management meetings. Strategic meetings, as the name says, were intended to discuss the strategy and development of the company and were to be held every first Thursday of the month. The upper management meeting was going to take place once a week, on Mondays from 9 to 11 a.m., while operations management meetings were to be held by individual department managers. They were scheduled to take place following the upper management meeting and were to last half an hour. Their purpose was to set up the flow of communication in such a way that everyone was regularly informed of everything. Once we had agreed on the forms of the individual meetings and their schedules, we took a step further and also determined their content. These instructions were also given to all of the department managers. It was important that everyone was aware of the intended workflow and that they respect it. We decided that the initial rules would be adjusted together with department managers and in accordance with the new work system. This meant that, in the end, these would be rules that they themselves had formulated. Once new management meeting rules were adopted, new communication guidelines were also established – which, importantly, included instructions concerning the communication of information to lower levels of the company hierarchy. At the same time, we also defined the format and basic content of meeting minutes.

Once we had introduced the use of meeting minutes, all key information and conclusions were written down. We also determined and noted who was responsible for the execution of individual items. With these steps we made sure that any conclusions that were reached would be recorded and passed on to  employees by their managers in exactly the same form. Information would no longer be lost or transformed as a result of the process of communication. At the same time, we ensured that individual responsibilities would be traceable, each manager would know what must be accomplished before the next meeting occurred. Already by the director’s fourth meeting after establishing the new guidelines, the gathering lasted as long as it was supposed to and took place without any accusations or conflicts. We divided the upper management meeting into three parts of 45 minutes each. The first part was dedicated to current problem areas. Each director or department manager could present organisational or technical issues that they were not able to solve on their own. The second part was dedicated solely to marketing and the development of the company – discussing new opportunities, human resource development, inventions, innovations and new products. The third part was dedicated to the company’s internal and external projects with topics including: reaching or not reaching targets (time and/or financial ones), new projects and complex claims. A decision and actionable solutions had to be made regarding each item. 

As I observed the managers and directors at the meeting, I quickly realised that anarchy prevailed at the company. The new director had dropped into a completely disorganised environment. When he started this job he also began to experience further deep changes in his already disorganised personal life. It usually happens that when one thing goes wrong, other things soon follow. The director had only two options: continue managing the company according to the system that had already been in place when he arrived or take a completely new path.

  

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‘Only when we are completely true to ourselves, can we start coexisting in love.’

If he continued the existing way of working, the department managers would sooner or later overpower him and in time they would be running him and the company. This approach would offer him a certain ‘safety’ but this would be safety in foul-smelling stagnant water. Sooner or later he would end up leaving the company as a result of his own mounting dissatisfaction. After I showed him on the first day what the real situation was, he decided to put things in order.

Of course he had to decide whether to take the department managers as partners and outline a common strategic path, or to opt for a centralised autocratic leadership model and give them a clear understanding of what he expects from them, in the process perhaps even letting go or replacing some of the managers.

The director decided to create a new strategy together and invited the managers to join him as partners. He chose a more difficult path but ultimately the most successful one. Together we focused on equally redistributing responsibilities within the company and on making the work environment  one that is energised  by personal motivation. We wanted to encourage a business-like mentality in every single employee in the company, meaning that each individual is looking for business opportunities and possibilities for the optimisation of their work.

Already after the first upper management meeting it was clear to me that one of his major priorities must be to change the way of communicating, since certain sectors and their employees were not even communicating with each other at all. Each manager had created his own image of the situation in the company. This happened because upper management never informed their employees of the actual situation, resulting in chaos.

One important factor was also that the number of employees in the company had increased considerably over the past five years, from 250 to 870. The company had experienced enormous growth in a very short time and during that expansion they didn’t have time to properly adjust their operational procedures and guidelines for communication and organisation to accommodate growth. Eventually the individuals within the company with the stronger personalities prevailed. The business process started to adjust to those individuals and not the other way around, becoming a reflection of their habits, needs and wishes with the predictable consequence that those who were more assertive had more influence.

I know from experience that on paper existing processes are not hard to change, but the changes stay on the paper if we do not internalise them. Any process is created by the people who contribute to it and if we are to change it, we must first change our habits. To be more exact, we must change. Since our habits are rooted in our subconscious, we will often do anything not to change them.

Changing processes is one of the most demanding tasks of any manager. The managers in our case were also a reflection of their employees. That is why the transformation must start at the very top of the organisation.

We must be aware that no one has the right to demand someone else change their personality. This would be an invasion of employee’s privacy and is against labour laws. We can only change our colleagues by example. The previous director had acted in the exact opposite way, he took on the habits and patterns of those around him. Because he was overpowered by his subordinates he adjusted to their habits and became trapped, unknowingly taking a subordinate position.

 ‘We must not seek attention outside ourselves. This is why we must occasionally also complement ourselves.’

I could simply not let the new director, my friend, do this. When I explained to him how an individual’s psyche works, he expressed a wish to reorganise the company in such a way that the workflows would be independent from the characters of individuals within those workflows. A key element for him was to not become emotionally involved in the business process, which meant that he was not allowed to look for solutions to his personal problems within the company or among his co-workers.

Together we also agreed to also pursue personal counselling concurrently with the business consulting, this would help him find answers to questions that had been following him ever since childhood.

Although we had first met each other in our early teens, I wasn’t familiar with his family background. To be honest I wasn’t even interested in it back then. We met again after he had already married. I had thought of him as a spoiled only child, but then he told me his twin brother had died at birth. This is why his parents subconsciously gave him everything and took extra care that nothing would happen to him. He himself agreed that as a child he was given everything he wanted. He enjoyed this and felt safe.

When he turned fifteen he experienced his first loss, his father died in a car accident. After that his mother took him even closer under her wing and that made him even more attached. Since she had already lost two in her family, she didn’t want to lose the third. At the same time, she forgot that this loss didn’t just affect her but it strongly affected her son as well. And it was even more painful for him because until then he hadn’t known what loss was. Because of the pain and the pressure from his overprotective mother, all he wanted was to escape his home environment.

His mother’s fervent wish was for him to become a doctor, one that could look after her in her old age and help her with medical issues. Since the situation at home was gradually suffocating him, after he finished high school he realised he had to change his environment. Despite his mother’s disapproval, he decided to go to the United States and study management.

Just the thought of going abroad was liberating for him. His idea of America, however, was an illusion constructed from watching movies – though he was not aware of this at the time. Over his mother’s objections he applied to a university in Chicago and was accepted. He found himself a flat and made sure he had a scholarship. Since his mother had been saving money for him, he had enough for a plane ticket and something to live from in the beginning. Saying goodbye to his mother was hard, of course, but liberating at the same time. ‘When it came time to leave, I hoped that my mother would approve of my decision. I remember her sitting at the kitchen table, I remember her distant look. When I put the plane ticket in front of her, she looked at me and even today I can feel the pain I saw in her eyes – but I had to do it, as soon as possible. I wished she would have understood and accepted my decision. I expected resistance and some pleading for me not to leave, but instead she just looked at me. She slowly stood up from behind the table and gave me a hug. ‘Take care of yourself’ was the only thing she said. In a way she had accepted my leaving. We said our goodbyes in peace. I was bursting with curiosity and there was a desire burning deep inside of me to get to know a new world and for a completely new life’.

After hearing this, I quickly realised that this event is still very vivid for him and, most of all, still very painful. Even today, when he thinks of it, he feels uncomfortable and feels pressure in his chest. I explained to him that his mother was not being completely honest when she wished him good luck. In reality she wanted him to stay home, with her. His departure made her feel even more alone and she had to face her greatest fear. Even though she never admitted it to herself, she was afraid of being alone. Instead of being proud of her son and his independence, she was angry. Her anger grew stronger over the years, because he didn’t keep his promise to phone her and come home regularly.

America lost its TV show sparkle for him already after just a few days of living there. But most of all, he was suddenly no longer the centre of attention, the best, the most beautiful. He became someone who had to fight for survival and prove himself – first to himself and then to others. He told me that he felt as if he had been reborn because he needed to live an independent and responsible life, step by step.

It was becoming clearer and clearer to me why he had made such a decisive change in his life then. Even though he was convinced that by leaving he would find freedom, the truth was completely different. It certainly took a lot of courage for him to decide upon and carry out such a radical plan, however it didn’t solve the fundamental problem inside of him that began to reveal itself in his way of life later on as he continued to repeat his same old mistakes. His decision to go abroad was mostly to  escape from his mother. Even though she offered him an easy and carefree life, deep down he wasn’t happy. His anger toward her only grew stronger while fighting to survive at an American university. Suddenly his sole purpose for going abroad to study was to prove to her he could survive without her and succeed on his own.

 ‘If leaders always keep the most responsible work for themselves, it is highly demotivating for their employees.’

Dynamic Leadership Model - E-book - Milan Krajnc

When he graduated from the elite university, they offered him the opportunity to continue his studies – but this time he no longer felt the desire and the need to prove himself. He had reached his goal. He had proven he could take care of himself. He came home after six years for the first time. During all this time, he had only called his mother once. There were no visits or holidays at home and she strongly resented him for this.

When he came home, she didn’t want to see him at first. He proudly threw a diploma and a check for $100,000 in front of her saying, ‘You see, even without you I was able to educate myself, find a job  and achieve a lot!’ His mother did not understand what was he trying to tell her. She was filled with anger, sadness and disappointment. She simply could not understand why he was acting like that toward her. She was willing to sacrifice her life for him, so this was even more painful for her.

They had spent only fifteen minutes together when he suddenly said goodbye and left again. Only after a year, after he found himself a serious partner, did he start to slowly realise what he had done to his mother. It was true she was suffocating him and not preparing him for life, but he knew that she didn’t know any other way to be, she was just doing what she thought was best for him. She wanted to protect him from the cruelty she had faced herself. Her approach to raising her son was based on her own experience.

‘Mental garbage is information in our subconscious which has no clear purpose and creates negative thoughts that cause stress.’

Two years after returning to Slovenia he got married. His wife assumed the role of his mother, which she did because she thought that’s what he expected of her. She completely subordinated herself to him, looking after him in all respects, which pleased him. He was again the centre of attention. With his wife’s help he slowly began to realise how unfair he had been to his mother. It took him two years to apologise. He told me he would always remember that day. Finally, an honest conversation took place between them. That was the first time he felt relief, as if a burden had been lifted off him.

As we analysed his life, he became aware that nothing in life is self-evident, that he did not go to America to study just to find freedom, but also because of his anger. Everything about life he had learned while living in America he wasn’t actually using at home in Slovenia. He viewed his childhood and his life until then as a burden. When his mother told him she had cancer, this crushed him also brought them closer together. To his great disappointment he realised that he had spent his life in anger. Even though he looked happy on the outside – he had an important position in the company, an understanding wife, a new house, a good car – he knew he still had not found himself. He still felt like a child trapped in the cage of life.

From our conversations I learned that he was making the same mistakes in his marriage as his mother had made in hers. He put his wife on a pedestal, spoiled her and showered her with presents. He wanted to provide her with everything because he thought that is one shows affection. Of course, at the beginning of their relationship the wife seemed to love all the attention. For him, however, it eventually became too difficult to play this role, and most of all it proved to be too little to sustain a successful marriage. She eventually fell in love with another man, somebody with whom she felt emotionally safe and with whom she wanted to have children with. Because she had found this with somebody else, my friend and his wife no longer had a shared goal. She did not want an equal life, she just wanted to take care of a home and family and needed a partner who would provide an emotional safety net for her.

Towards the end of spring that very same year, he received a call from the hospital that his mother had died. On his way home he wanted to call his wife to tell her the sad news, but he couldn’t get through to her. Then he saw she had left him a voicemail. His wife let him know she could not deal with their marriage any longer and she was saying goodbye to him, saying they would handle everything through a lawyer from now on. At that moment his life fell to pieces. Suddenly he saw a car cross in front of him, it was too late to avoid it.

Later on he could only remember lying in the hospital bed feeling lonely and abandoned. In a single  day he had lost his mother, his wife and had a car accident. If he was lucky enough to have survived, he was not able to tell yet. He finally thought long and hard about his life. Even though his mother had gone he was glad they managed to find peace together and, at least towards the end, had a good relationship. He was aware he had forgiven her for the mistakes she had made and was grateful she had done the same. He felt her death was a symbolic farewell to his childhood and his golden cage. At that moment he was no longer a boy, he became a man. The feeling of estrangement from his wife began when he started to forgive his mother. This is when his typical behaviour patterns, his way of life started to disappear. Because he no longer felt the same needs, his wife also no longer felt needed and fulfilled. She wanted the exact same life he had originally offered her and exactly the same partner he had been when they first met. They had started to drift apart because he had changed and she had not. The distance between them grew so big they became strangers. Because he was successful and ambitious, but at the same time also wanted to spend as much time with his wife as possible, his life had turned into one impossible rush and he had forgotten about himself. In a way, his car accident was a stroke of luck, a warning for him to stop.

We cannot blame our parents for our problems. Once we are of age, we are responsible for our own lives. We grow up when we decide to do so ourselves. Rushing through life is just running away from ourselves. It just means we don’t want to face ourselves. But with each escape, also a part of our life escapes us. Our time is limited and every moment that we fail to pay attention to it to leaves a tiny void in us. We should all learn to live neither for others nor for the material world but for ourselves, to be aware of every moment. Only when we are truly honest with ourselves do we start to co-exist in love. 

 ‘Since we cannot change all our co-workers, it is time to start thinking about changing their superiors’.

His mother’s death, his wife’s departure and the car accident had pushed my friend to a dead-end. He felt he had no reason to live any more. He was falling faster and faster and it showed in all areas of his life. But he was given a second chance, at least professionally, one that could awaken him. 

‘If we want to reach our goals, we need a team of people willing to look for solutions.’

After a few meetings he was determined not to force anything or to be angry at anyone. By being angry we only build a cage for ourselves. Most importantly he realised he must put himself first. Business is a part of life, just like love, friends and even challenges are. By realising all of this, he would be able to positively influence his new work environment. Despite his new awareness and discoveries, he had not solved his personal problems yet.

Challenges and problems are part of life and we need to solve them as they arise. At one of our meetings he told me that from now on he is going to like himself and that he will lead by example and show others they need to like and respect themselves. He was convinced that that is the only way they could be useful to themselves and to the company. Our meetings gradually bore fruit. Contentious relations within the company were resolved, upper management meetings became more creative and there were fewer mutual accusations. After I had worked with the director for five weeks, the management board had become quite a pleasant team. Co-workers also noticed his new approach to leadership and began to support the director despite their initial disapproval of him.

Not everything was perfect, by any means. Some managers were still having trouble accepting the changes, resistance which was largely dependent on their life experiences and personality characteristics. But most were happy with the new approach. I let them know that I could also help them cut ties with their old behaviour patterns. We agreed for me to spend one hour with each manager.  

The administrative manager was a brilliant student as a child. Schoolmates often teased him, calling him a nerd, and never entirely accepted him into their circle. He was always pushed aside, except when the end of semester was approaching. That was when they wanted to be friends with him – of course just for as long as they needed him. He put up with this but inside felt rejected. He didn’t socialise with anyone during his free time. He came from an average working family who could afford an average life, spending their evenings in front of the telly.

His parents didn’t spend much time with him, they had enough troubles of their own. The father drank too much on occasion and this sometimes led to violence. All this time, anger and resentment were festering inside him. When he was choosing what to study, he picked law. He thought that as a lawyer he could defend himself if anyone were ever to try to take advantage of him again, or even take revenge via a legal path. Since studying law didn’t meet his expectations, he decided to continue his postgraduate studies in human resources.

I had memorised his words from the very first meeting: ‘… so far none of the previous directors has had any understanding of the development of human resources, they always just expected and demanded maximum results from the employees, nothing else interested them’. These were not just his words but also his actions, since in his co-workers he saw the schoolmates who used him. So he transferred his anger onto them. In his previous director he saw his father acting out on him. The admin manager was the one who had anonymously tipped off the owners of the company about the previous director, who was improperly handing documents and later replaced. During our conversation he became more and more involved in his thoughts. Before the next management meeting began he came to me and shook my hand, looked me in the eye and thanked me.

I understood the gesture, but his actions spoke even louder. At the meeting he was more relaxed and he looked less stern. When he presented his solution for a problem they had been debating, the general manager complemented him for the originality of his idea. And the complement gave him important validation. At subsequent meetings considerable changes were noticeable in his demeanour. I watched him open up to his co-workers, allowing them to get closer and signalling that he no longer treated them as adversaries. This was also probably the first time he felt what it meant to have a genuine professional relationship.

The production manager was a special character. That’s what he was told throughout his childhood. He was an individualist, he didn’t socialise much and instead enjoyed exploring, repairing or ‘upgrading’ things. His parents realised with pride that he was technically minded since he disassembled everything he got his hands on. Of course not many of those things were then re-assembled. As he grew older he began to ‘improve’ things he received or bought, something which gave him great joy. He didn’t want to feel limited and wanted complete freedom, and since the previous director knew he was doing his job well and that the company was largely dependent on him, he gave him complete independence. In his personal life the production manager quenched his thirst for freedom with speed, mostly sports cars that occasionally attracted the attention of his co-workers. He liked the attention even though he was still a bit of a loner. Everyone needs attention, however we must not seek attention from the outside world but from within ourselves. That’s why we must praise ourselves occasionally. He also didn’t have a family; he enjoyed his single life and wasn’t ready to exchange it for a family. The general director knew that if he demanded detailed reports from him, he would be limiting him and hampering his creativity, which was bringing income to the company. He was also aware that it was not ideal for so many employees to depend solely upon one person.  At upper management meetings, when the general director sensed that the production manager had found himself at a dead end, he suggested he take certain measures that would challenge him in a way that encouraged his creativity. When he was given a challenge he readily accepted it.

The marketing manager quickly sensed that cooperating at the management meetings meant a possible promotion. When the previous director was on his way out, he lobbied the owners to appoint him to the empty post. He wanted the attention, he was a good salesman who was ready to do anything for the customers.

‘By resisting, we merely spin around in circles.’

Since he was only interested in external validation, he didn’t spend any time with the organisational requirements of his department, which was pretty chaotic and causing delays in the production process. The previous director had left him alone since he always had a lot of orders, but the director also never checked the prices. The marketing manager was good at psychoanalysing people and he could read the needs of the customer very well, so he was also adept at reading the new director as well and surprised him with a speech. ‘Mr Director, I will be able to tell you in more detail once you tell us in which direction you are navigating the ship…’ He let him know that he is ready to cooperate and that he respects him as his superior. He came from an artistic family, his mother was an actress and his father a musician. He learned at an early age what performing before an audience can give you and how to get them to like you. He was born when his parents were both over forty, already tired of performing but still desiring the attention. He learned from them that he had to always get attention, no matter the price, if he wants to survive. The parents didn’t have much time for him nor their home, so they lived in state of disorder. There was no noticeable difference between the department he was running and his former home. 

The financial director was a beautiful girl as a child. Her parents tried to instil a great sense of respect for others in her. At first she was a brilliant student and her primary school years were straight out of a fairy-tale. Most would say she had a happy childhood. But she never felt true love from her parents. They talked a lot, they showed her a large part of the world, taught her how to survive, but there was not enough warmth and mutual attachment in their relationship. In high school she met a boy and went completely head over heals for him. He took advantage of her naïveté and was mostly just attracted by her parents’ wealth. 

His circle of friends, which she became a part of, was into using drugs. Initially cannabis and then later heroin. When they needed money for drugs, she provided it. Eventually the parents realised what was going on and put a stop to it. Since she couldn’t buy drugs any more she was no longer of any use to her so-called friends and they kicked her out of their circle. At seventeen she was addicted to drugs, and after she failed three classes she no longer knew what to do. Her parents gave her an ultimatum: either she stopped using drugs and went to rehab or they will cut her out of their life. As a result of her naïveté she had found herself at the edge of society.  She completely closed up and dedicated herself to school and passed her exams almost with flying colours. Her drug addiction was replaced with sports activities and she entered fourth year completely transformed on the outside but emotionally even more closed off. She no longer trusted anyone. She blamed her parents for not teaching her how to love herself and her friends for using her for her money. She focused on her business career and completely devoted her life to it. She continued doing sports activities to stay in shape while working at the office for twelve or more hours a day. Everything she did was for her career. She treated the previous director as she had treated her parents: she was angry at him but needed his help and support to get to the top – and she was willing to do anything to get there. When the financial director position opened up she was determined to get it, even if she had to use her feminine charms. At that time she was head of the accounting department and when she found out about the new opportunity, she didn’t hesitate and quickly made a plan to secure the position for herself. When an opportunity arose she invited the director to her place for dinner; that same week she was appointed financial director, without any job advertisement being released for the position. They were lovers, even though he was married, until he was released from the company. She didn’t mind the infidelity, since this was the only way to control her position within the company. The moment he was let go, she ceased all communication with him. She no longer took his calls and when he came to visit she didn’t even open the door.

When the new director turned out to be kind, open and honest with everyone, she felt a difference and warmth that she had never experienced before. Since he showed the same respectful attitude to every employee, she felt she will now have to show her knowledge and potential in order to keep her job.

‘If we want to act differently, we must change our habits.’

Everyone left the management meeting content. They went back to their offices and, inspired by the meeting, started to prepare their next steps. Each of them had to think carefully about how they imagined a different kind of organisation, how the workflow should be organised in their departments if the department managers went on vacation for a month.

The director and I made a plan for how to motivate the newly-formed strategic team. Each individual was given a task which demanded his or her personal input and we gave each person a chance to express their creativity and to present proposals for the development of the company. At the same time, they also had to face the responsibilities of their positions.

Everyone had to make an organisational chart of the company and of his or her own sector. Thus the director and I learned from them for the first time who is doing what in the company and who answers to whom.

Creating the organisational chart was also a huge psychological relief for the department managers. By doing this, each leader realised that she or he is not responsible for everything and that their employees – their co-workers – must take responsibility as well. From almost all the diagrams it was apparent that within each sector there were tasks that repeated or were intertwined with others, such that it was impossible to determine who exactly was responsible for a certain task. They also realised that quite often they were doing tasks which were actually the responsibility of their employees. Once they began to rearrange their schedules with their employees and defined only one person for each individual task, their schedules were greatly relieved, some by even up to 40 per cent.

After coming to this conclusion, the managers no longer complained about having a lack of time but they did begin to question the abilities of their employees. Most of the managers were of the opinion that their co-workers did not have sufficient experience and knowledge to carry out the newly assigned tasks to the same standard as they themselves had before the change. Suddenly they were convinced that is was not going to work. When the new operations system was implemented in the company, the members of the entire strategic group – that is, the directors of the individual departments – began to resist.

The managers’ biggest problem was that they did not trust their co-workers. They were convinced that the employees in their department were not as competent as they were, so they would rather carry out many of the tasks by themselves rather than assign them to others. By doing this, however, they not only decreased the employees responsibilities but also their motivation. The managers let the employees in their department know that they thought they were not capable of doing more demanding and responsible tasks. If the manager always keeps the most important tasks for themselves, it has a strong demotivating effect on the employees – they are letting them know that they will never be as good as their superiors and that there is no use in even trying. Because of this, the department managers’ schedules became overloaded while their employees were less busy and less motivated. All this brought about resentments and subtle complexes.

These patterns led to blockages and caused mental garbage that created ever more puddles of stagnant water in the company. The more stagnant these puddles became, the more the mental pain of the managers grew, which manifested itself in increasing rudeness towards their employees and the community as the distance between them only increased. And the employees felt as if they meant nothing to their superiors – leading to even more recalcitrant behaviour.

‘There is no need to eat the entire pot of soup to know how it tastes.’

In creating the organisational chart, the managers had to face themselves first and thus make space to clean away their mental garbage and smelly puddles of stagnant water. The tension was relieved but in the first phase only the cleaning of the least smelly puddles took place. Immediately afterwards new doubts came to light. Suddenly, they had the feeling that the director’s approach would create even more confusion in the company.

Mental garbage is information collected in our subconscious which has no clear meaning, creating negative thoughts that cause stress. Each of the managers was trying to convince the director that they could not hand over tasks to their subordinates because the latter simply weren’t up to it. They pressured him from all sides, so he decided to call an intervention meeting. Each of the department managers pushed their own point of view and portrayed him or herself as irreplaceable, and their  subordinates as incompetent underlings who couldn’t be trusted.

The director listened, observing them carefully. They acted like a herd of wild animals intent on  fulfilling their desires at any cost. When they started repeating themselves, he nodded and asked them, ‘Does this mean that we now have to replace all the employees in your departments?’ They all looked at him surprised and replied ‘no’. The director was not distracted and continued, ‘Is this how you are going to work for the rest of your lives?’ Again, a no from all of them, this time in a calmer tone and a wondering look in their eyes.

What are we supposed to do then? Do we need new assistants and where are we going to get the money for them? Everyone went quiet. They were left speechless, without arguments or ideas. The director took advantage of the situation and calmly continued, ‘Since we cannot change all of our employees, maybe it’s time we started thinking about changing their managers’.

The facial expressions around the table betrayed their true feelings. As they all sat in shock, the production manager said jokingly, ‘You can’t be thinking of us, can you?’ ‘Yes, you’, the director calmly replied. ‘If you cannot find a solution, I will. The previous director was replaced because he couldn’t find one. So, if I am to follow the reasoning of the owners, I must replace you’.

Everyone came to the intervention meeting intending to persuade the director that reorganisation measures in their sector were unnecessary, time consuming and damaging instead of useful. My job as consultant was to prepare the director for the ambush that awaited him. The department managers acted quite impulsively, so it was important for the director to calm down in order to be able to react appropriately. The key was not to play their game. Because they all came to the meeting with the same goal, they thought they could win him to their side. Of course they were expecting that they would have to use a considerable amount of persuasion to show him they were right, but he surprised them by not playing their game and instead just clearly and calmly stated his position. Because they were not prepared for such an approach they were left without any arguments.

Still surprised, the financial director spoke, ‘This is too much, this is blackmail!’ ‘Not at all, these are only different, more radical ways to achieve a goal. If we want to achieve these goals, I need a team of people who will not only see problems but will also be willing to search for solutions,’ he replied to her. He explained that he was not looking for final solutions but suggestions which can be developed and researched in depth. Nobody wants to just search for reasons why they shouldn’t be doing something. He wanted them to find arguments for why something must be done. If they just resist, they are only spinning around in circles and this doesn’t bring results, it only increases loss. The current situation was forcing them to carry out change, firstly on themselves, so that afterward they could demand it from their employees. Once they write out all the proposals that were requested of them they still won’t have solved any problems, but they will be able to clearly see the whole picture. It is crucial for the director to see individual pictures as parts of a bigger picture.

We wanted to explain that, once they look at their own departments, at first they will see even more issues and problems – but they mustn’t panic, because their common task was to begin solving them. The problems were there all along but because of their strained workload they hadn’t noticed them before. In all such situations it is of key importance to define things and only then start changing them – comprehensively, as a whole. Solving them only partially would cause even more problems. This is because with a partial solution to a problem we can create new problems or even expend the existing ones.

 ‘A man should only seek a woman as strong as he can handle. Everything else just gives them the wrong impression.’

This is why a comprehensive overview of tasks and responsibilities in the company is important. The department managers did not just draw an organisational chart so they could figure out each employee’s responsibilities and define who does what and how, but mostly to establish how they work together as a unit. If they wanted to create a common work strategy, they had to provide a comprehensive approach to the work.

The director managed to calm his heated colleagues. He advised them to continue with the task he gave them. At the same time, he assured them he is counting on their further cooperation and assistance. He reminded them that at the next management meeting they will thoroughly inspect the procedures of each individual sector and discuss the problematic issues and solutions for each department together.

The intervention meeting was a success, all the department managers had completed the given tasks in time. They all made the organisational chart and the list of tasks the employees in their department should have. They also completed an organisational chart which included a diagram depicting the flow of information in their department. A list of the issues that needed attention in the department, together with their proposed solutions, was prepared as well.

 ‘The human being’s path while growing up is a struggle, so the instinct to fight stays within us. If you are reading this, it means you are alive and still fighting.’

They all submitted their materials to the personal assistant on time. Before the next meeting, the documentation needed to be sorted and compared with the company’s articles of association, the internal regulations outlining the company’s structure. The director instructed his assistant to prepare an analysis of tasks for every single employee. The analysis had to contain a comparison of the tasks given to the employees by their department manager and the tasks which the employees were supposed to be carrying out according to the company structure as it was defined on paper. A comparison of work procedures followed, those from the lists from the department managers with the ISO Standard documentation. Both he and his secretary had to work over the weekend, of course, but they had all the documentation ready for the meeting on Monday.

As the department managers came in to the meeting, one could feel their light step and sense of relief. They were all proud to have fulfilled the director’s expectations and prove to him that they are capable of leading their departments.

The meeting began with the director’s greeting, then he complemented and thanked everyone for their cooperation and readiness to complete the first comprehensive task. A discussion of current challenges followed. The department managers suggested potential solutions for the issues that were presented. They agreed upon all further measures together. The business secretary wrote down all the conclusions and prepared the minutes of the meeting. Each decision was clearly defined: what needs to be done, who is responsible for the execution of that task and the deadline.

An overview of the documentation that was gathered from each department manager followed. The director presented, individually for each sector, all the deviations he had found, that is to say, the differences between the department managers’ observations and how the company should be functioning according to the company’s articles of association. The differences were huge. Some employees were not executing even a single task defined for their position in the company’s description of positions. The company was in a state of complete anarchy.  The department managers were left speechless. They couldn’t believe how great the differences actually were.

Their astonishment grew even more when they saw the actual information flow and organisational procedures in the company. At that moment they realised that the current state of the company did not correspond with the articles of association, which now served no purpose whatsoever. The director managed to prove to his colleagues that the workflow in the company was not rationally organised and that each sector had adjusted them to its own needs.

Suddenly they all became vocal. They wanted to explain themselves and most of all, blame somebody else. The director leaned back in his chair and listened. Since he did not react to their accusations, they slowly calmed down. Then the silence was broken by the admin manager. ‘For goodness’ sake, why don’t you want to discuss things with us? It looks as if our opinions aren’t important to you. Why don’t you say anything?’ This was now the second time the director had been challenged. Since he was still not ready to dance to their music, they were even more confused. They experienced a shock, a positive one. The director had put a mirror up to them: they themselves saw what was going on versus what was supposed to be happening. He gave them an insight into reality and showed them they themselves could be wrong.

He looked straight into the eyes of the admin manager and then with a calm yet firm voice responded, ‘What am I supposed to say if you are all talking at the same time. I don’t even understand what you are trying to say. I think we are old enough to carry out a conversation and not scream at each other. We are all adults.’

Once they had all calmed down the conversation continued in a normal tone of voice. Suddenly there was no tension, sarcasm or violence, just a more relaxed manner of conversation. The director let them know that they, too, were capable of making mistakes. But by being calm and understanding toward them he gave them a clear sign that his intention was not to look for guilty parties, but to find solutions for everyone and to improve things.

But this was a critical turning point for another reason as well – the department managers had put their masks away and began to cooperate with one another. The director let them know that he accepted them the way they are. The most important thing for him was not to step away from his intentions. Even though he had confronted the co-workers with the results of their own work, mutual relations actually started to improve. They were all just people with flaws, but also people who were striving to reach the same goal. And this is key in every organisation: common vision, common goals and a well-defined strategy. 

When they continued with the next item of the meeting, everyone shared their ideas on how to save time and material and who could be their new customers. There were no major comments made here. They nevertheless now understood that the work to be done was much more complex than they had imagined it to be. Every manager had a completely different vision of who the target clients were. Once they started talking there were a lot of proposals on the table. They agreed to organise a team-building session by the end of the month, with the subject being ‘finding new potential business opportunities’.

In the last part of the meeting they went through all the currently active projects and saw that they did not even have a complete overview of all open orders. They agreed to set up a summary of all offers and divide them into categories (‘in preparation’, ‘in negotiation’, ‘ready to sign’, ‘being executed’) and to list all the projects which were being executed (including in which phase they are and who is in charge of each one ). Only in this way could they get the feeling that some progress had been made.

‘Follow my advice, so that you do not make the same mistakes I did.’

After the meeting everyone felt ‘relieved’. They had new directions and there was no more resistance. This was apparent already at the next meeting when everyone came prepared and with their assigned tasks completed. Subsequent meetings were all much more relaxed, occasionally someone even made a joke here and there. They started to talk about their mistakes and their solutions at the same time. And already after their third strategic meeting they suggested that these sorts of meetings be transferred to the lower levels of the company hierarchy as well. They all agreed to organise similar meetings within each department.

The department managers, despite their initial resistance, accepted that these kinds of management meetings were an efficient approach to communication. They all started to get along better with one another and the meetings became more polite and relaxed. Actually, they became a necessity for them. The department managers had to change their habits and accept new work methods. Since they established fairly quickly that the new approach was more effective, less demanding and less stressful, they adopted it as their own. Of course this was not the end of the rationalisation process, which had begum at the very top. It still had to work its way down the ladder.

It was the general director’s turn first, followed by the department managers. The next step was to put it into practice among the individual heads of departments. When implementing changes into existing procedures it is of utmost importance for the individuals to first feel the need for these changes. The director himself felt this need. After working with him on a personal level, together we defined his personal and business goals. He felt that other employees must also start to work differently. He couldn’t do this by demanding them to change. His only weapon was to lead the transformation by example. Because the general director was sending out positive vibrations with his way of working, he motivated other department managers as well.

If we want to work differently, we must change our habits. The reorganisation of a company means changing the habits of the people. It succeeds only when changes also begin to take place in the minds of the employees. When the wheel of change starts to spin, we must make sure it keeps spinning, it mustn’t stop or start spinning backwards. This would bring about even more chaos than that which existed before the changes were implemented.

Laying down new rules is one of the ways to make sure that the wheel does not spin backwards. The individual department managers quickly sensed the director’s new approach and followed him at first. However, after tasks were assigned at the management meeting they began to resist. They wanted to stop the wheel of change and go back to their previous state. But once we take a step forward, there is no going back. Even if we want to go back, we never go back one step, but two or more. This is because unconsciously we want to remove ourselves from the point of change. If we only take a single step back, we are still right in front of the point of change. If we take two or more steps back it will be much more difficult on our next attempt to convince the employees to begin to change things.  

In our case, the general director persisted on the path of transformation and swiftly guided his colleagues away from hitting a dead-end. The department managers had made a big step, a quantum leap, and stepped back onto the wheel of change. Since the director and I made sure that they did not get the chance to stop themselves then, there was no more resistance from them later on.

After four months of transforming their work methods they had almost completely changed their habits. They said themselves that they could no longer imagine working the old way. Later on they took the initiative of implementing these changes to lower levels as well. The wheel of change continued to churn forward. All the guidelines we established at our first upper management meetings were transferred to lower levels of the company. Within a year, step by step, the entire company started to function in line with the new principles.

‘Within a year, step by step, the entire company started to function in line with the new principles.’

 The Dynamic model of leadership is indeed the new economy. For the economy is formed on the basis of demand, and demand on the basis of needs. After this period of “crisis”, consumers will react differently because their primary emotions will be paramount. For the future, this means a new leadership, a new economy, a new world. And because I built the whole model according to the laws of physics/nature. Colleagues at UN thought this should be seen by the general public and nominated me for the Nobel Prize in Economics 2021.

 

Avtor - Milan Krajnc

Author of the article: pedagogue, entrepreneur & crisis manager
I teach you to look “at yourself” as a third person. For more information or an introductory meeting, write to me at official@milankrajnc.com

Strategic goal - Milan Krajnc
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Strategic objective

Although the project has a concrete goal, it is not yet certain that we will achieve it. It often happens
that we fail earlier or lose ourselves too much. Therefore it is necessary to set milestones or key points
by which we measure whether we are on the right track.

In companies the owners define goals through vision, strategy and mission. The analysis of Manager
Association from September 2005 showed that 78% of a sample of 207 interviewed directors have a
defined vision and strategy of the organization. If we were then to ask these directors whether they
could present us with a t.i. “Strategic Development Program for the next 5 to 7 years”, the percentage
of positive answers would be much lower.
The fact is that the owners are still satisfied with the simply written objectives of the company through
the vision and strategy, and they do not order the operational program through the projects because
the awareness of the owners is probably too low. not mature enough.

 

The main task of the t.i. “Strategic Development Program” is to enable the company, based on a
detailed analysis of the business activity of the last 3 to 5 years and data on the development of the
sales and purchase markets, to define not only the vision and strategy, but also clearly defined
strategic goals to be realized through

the projects. The literature suggests that corporate strategies are
realized by projects. In telecommunications it is common practice to replace almost all the technology within 5 years, so it makes sense to prepare development programs somewhere between 5 and 7 years, while
in the energy sector the shortest reasonable period is at least 10 to 15 years, as the projects themselves usually have a duration of 5 to 7 years. We achieve larger and more important strategic goals through projects. The strategic goals are derived from the strategy. Strategies are the way to achieve goals. For smaller projects it is sufficient to make an initial record of the project and define the minimum elements (vision, strategy, goal and purpose, implementation tactics, key events, project organization, key success factors, resources, project cash flow, IT and funding). In case of larger, longer or more risky projects, we prepare a project start plan, which, in addition to the elements of the initial record, includes the definition of cross-project integration, success factors, ensuring optimal project implementation procedures, identified risks and solution, conditions for project implementation, In case of strategically important projects, where we realize the strategic goals of the company, we usually advise the owners, before preparing a project (initial start-up or start-up plan), to draw up a socalled strategic project development plan in the company, in which we define strategic development areas and establish different strategies in each area (products, organization, personnel, development, technology, promotion, vertical and horizontal communication, financing, placing the product/service on the demand market, comprehensive customer management, etc.)).

So what are the strategic goals of this project?
The PMBOOK-Guide therefore identified the t.i. “Project Scope Management” – the process leading to
the project goals, which distinguishes:

  • The PMBOOK Guide therefore identified the t.i. "Project Scope Management" - the process leading to the project goals, which distinguishes
  • Scope Planning (clear written definition of the objectives as a basis for future project definitions)
  • Scope Definition (breakdown of the main objective into smaller, manageable objectives, objective and purpose, intermediate objective, etc.)
  • Scope Verification (confirmation of the objectives by the client, administrator, principal)
  • Scope Change Control.

That is why it is important from the very beginning that all three (the owner, the trustee and the
project manager) look at exactly the same picture and all see a forest with fifty-two spruces and eight
larches and in the middle a stream that flows down a very narrow riverbed into the lake.

But that is not enough. When a project manager has a big picture in front of him, it is his job to make
it happen. Sam? Hart. He has to find people around him with whom he can achieve the final goal, all
(strategic) intermediate goals and all objective and goal-oriented goals. But not everyone is equally
capable. The composition of the project team should be such that we will have a team that knows
attack, defense and tactics and is well aware of the opponent’s weaknesses. There are very few players
in the world who score goals. And the project manager has to find them if he wants to score goals. He
usually always has the “same” group at his disposal, he is rarely allowed to “hire” players from outside.

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»Given the clearly defined goals of the project, it is more important to find a group of people who can achieve these goals.«.

Example:

A medium-sized company in Slovenia has a well-prepared “Strategic Development Program for twelve
years in advance”, which defines all strategic projects, SWOT analysis for each of them, sets the main
objectives by time periods and provides a financial structure that can be partly completed with own and partly with loans. As the company has a high credit rating and a high reputation in the region, the
banks compete with them for loans. The only embarrassing thing is that most of the management is about to retire and only a fifth of the young people have been laid off in recent years. There are too few project managers to achieve all the strategic goals set. Since they have almost a monopoly position, they were in no hurry, not even in terms of staff training. Due to the conservatism of the management, hiring project managers is also out of the question. What is to be done? It is necessary to find “managers” within the company. People with a leadership personality, conflict-free and goaloriented, and with a high degree of company affiliation. You have not heard of HRM. Lately, however, they have tried to understand that it is not enough to have a project management policy, a project office and training on real projects and that management works in the old-fashioned way. The process. The process. The Process. Yes, what do the goals have to do with the process? Enough or nothing. How do you take. When they realized that they had to “bring in” their competencies into projects, things
went in the right direction. Today they are already breathing easier, although line managers
(occasionally) still look down on project managers.

At a certain point in time, the company is in a phase of transition from a functional organization to a
process organization, and in addition, the company has several projects every month. How can these
matters be handled?

It is possible:

  • a development strategy that must clearly state that the company will be restructured in three years to implement all nine strategic projects, while ensuring the expected growth each year (as requested by the owners) and managing the costs that must account for half of the company's growth. Would you be able to do that?
  • by renewing operational procedures (basic and support processes), through which we prepare the company to take on strategic challenges, projects,
  • by adapting ERP and BIS, which have to support new processes,
  • through reorganization in the sense of optimizing business processes,
  • clearly defined goals with HRM and CRM and a group that will build up both areas in three years

Even today, company managers still make the classic mistake:

  • because they subordinate IT to human resources or finance,
  • they organize their business in the general sector (or human resources), as they are responsible for systematization
  • Nobody deals with the processes anyway, except one month before the recertification of ISO9001: 2000, maybe even ISO14000, and then most companies (with no exceptions, have not yet arrived).
Strategic goal - Milan Krajnc

That is why I advise it:
1. only set strategic goals once you have prepared the company for these challenges.
2 When you run “projects” in a company, you should be aware that this is a parallel branch of
government and business.
3. not everyone is a “project manager”.
4. as long as the project teams do not receive at least the same services from the support processes
(purchasing, sales, accounting, finance, information technology, human resources, security, education
and training, perhaps even from the project office, office operations, etc.) as the sectors, services in the
existing organizational scheme, no projects will go ahead.
5. set up a workplace optimization, determine the real intellectual value of the employees and give
them appropriate tasks
6. find a critical mass of employees in the company who are able to manage projects (do not work on
projects, but manage them as managers) Directors make the biggest mistake when they declare
themselves as managers of one or even several projects in addition to the duties of a director. Then
everything comes to a standstill, even regular business.
7. create a really useful support environment for project management (especially an organizational unit
that supports projects of project office baking, project controlling, process management, organization
and business informatics) Create a clear and strong support environment for vertical and horizontal
communication (you can use Microsoft technologies like Share Point Portal and MS, and Project Server
Portal is welcome for more projects and more employees.
8. above all, train people and give them skills.

The driver in the passenger seat or even the back seat can still only watch the driver while driving.

Strategic goals are, so to speak, the points with which we check whether we are on the right track. We
never simply compare the amount of work done, but rather whether we have spent the planned
amount of money, whether we have met all deadlines, whether the planned amount of material has
been used, whether the communication channels have worked as planned, whether all personnel
resources have been involved, whether we have acted with foresight … in short, we have to check all
the parameters we originally planned. So the strategic goals could be divided into several parts, or.
each area must have its own strategic goal (e.g. Strategic Human Resources goal – to train 10 experts
in the field of maintenance of Windows information systems by the end of the year).


Achieving one strategic goal is actually the first step of the next strategic goal. The project has several
strategic goals, separated by content and deadlines. When achieving each strategic goal, it is always
necessary to check whether the next goal can be achieved, whether sufficient financial means are
planned, whether sufficient human and material resources are available. Before we continue with the
implementation of the strategy, it is necessary to check whether we are on the right track and it is
necessary to compare the strategic goals directly with the final goals, we must constantly measure the
deviations, if there are any. If there are deviations, it is necessary to change the strategy, trying to keep
the strategic objectives the same, but almost certainly we must not deviate from the final objective.
The final goal is always determined by the client (owner of the capital) and the strategic goals are
determined by the contractor.


Literature:
1 Glasser, William (1994). Control Theory or How to Establish Effective Control about your life.
Ljubljana: Taxus 2. William Glasser, 1999: Choice Theory – A New Psychology from Personal Freedom,
Perennial, The William Glasser Institute 3. Project Management Institute (2000 edition), A Guide to the
Project Management Body of Knowledge, PMBOOK Guide, 2000 edition 4. International Project
Management Association, ICB IPMA Competence Baseline, Version 2.0

 

Avtor - Milan Krajnc

Author of the article: pedagogue, entrepreneur & crisis manager
I teach you to look “at yourself” as a third person. For more information or an introductory meeting, write to me at official@milankrajnc.com

Risk on projects - Milan Krajnc
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Risk in projects

When planning and implementing a project, we try to identify and reduce the risk that threatens the project. The plan takes into account potential risk factors, and in carrying out the project we try to select the appropriate project participants, to manage and motivate them properly and to communicate well with them. By monitoring the project, we determine whether there are any deviations in the project from the actual and planned values. Then we take action as quickly as possible and implement the necessary corrective measures. A final analysis of the project progress is
also useful, providing us with valuable information for managing future projects.

“In today’s world, there are many projects that fail to achieve their goals. The reasons for this are largely due to deviations between actual and planned events. Planned events often fail to materialize because of a series of unforeseeable or only partially foreseeable disruptions. There is therefore always the risk that things will actually turn out differently than we had planned. It is therefore important that we make every effort to achieve the goals we have set ourselves at all stages of the work process. However, a thorough risk assessment plays a very important role in following up what has been planned. People in life face decisions every day that are more or less important. Decisions are present everywhere – at home and at work, in commercial and non-commercial institutions, in production lines and in projects. In the strictest sense, decision making is a choice between several different alternatives. For companies to be successful, it is extremely important that they make the right decisions, especially today when change is part of our daily lives. Since our information is never perfect and since our knowledge is limited, there is always the possibility that when we make a decision, we do not choose the one that brings the best results “(McCray, Purvis, McCray, 2002, p. 49).

Therefore, all decisions involve a certain amount of risk, which cannot be completely avoided despite
all efforts. Risk is the probability of adverse effects of future events. Sometimes this risk is high, sometimes negligible. The greater the risk, the more important it becomes to be aware of it and to try
to manage it. The risk is lower for repetitive decisions and activities where certain permanent solutions
occur over time. The level of security increases slightly with each repetition, and the risk of not achieving the objectives decreases. Over time, practitioners gain valuable experience and knowledge and refine their skills so that they can perform a routine activity better, faster and cheaper next time.

For one-off activities, such as projects, the risk is much higher because we make most decisions for the first time and the situation is completely new and unknown to us. We have no concrete experience and we learn on the fly during the course of the project. The probability of choosing the wrong alternative is higher, and the consequences of such a wrong decision are often fatal for the whole project. Risk mitigation is therefore crucial for projects and a necessary part of project management.

Risk on projects - Milan Krajnc

Well-thought-out risk management makes it possible to reduce project delays, lower project costs and improve the quality of the final impact of the project. Achieving project goals then has an indirect effect on increasing the business performance of the entire organization.

A distinction must be made between large and small projects, which have some different characteristics, and there are also differences between projects from different economic or noneconomic sectors. The risk in projects is high and reducing it is extremely important, but it differs slightly between different types of projects. There is a risk that we have misjudged some factors. However, the error of assessment can be reduced by taking the risk into account when planning the
project, for which there are several methods. The PERT critical path method and its newer and slightly improved version, the GERT method (Heizer und Render, 1988, pp. 672-673) are certainly well known. When planning and implementing a project, we try to identify and reduce the risk that threatens the project. The plan takes into account potential risk factors, and in carrying out the project we try to
select suitable project participants, to manage and motivate them properly and to communicate well with them. By monitoring the project, we determine whether there are any deviations in the project from the actual and planned values. Then we take action as quickly as possible and implement the necessary corrective measures. A final analysis of the project progress is also useful, providing us with
valuable information for managing future projects.

Risk can be described as the probability of undesired consequences of future events. It can also be
described as a hazard, the possibility of a negative consequence or loss, the threat of inconvenience
and the like. This definition covers only a negative view of risk, although every risk also has certain
positive characteristics. It is a well-known fact in economic theory that a higher risk also allows a higher
return. An old proverb says that the greater the risk, the greater the reward (Clarke, Varma, 1999, p. 414).

Project risk is any event that prevents or limits the achievement of the project objectives. Project risk can be divided into many types according to various criteria. The most common one is the classification of project risk according to its relation to project objectives, separating time risk, financial risk and risk related to the quality of project impact. A distinction can also be made between indirect (subordinate) and direct (superior) project risk, where it is a possibility to influence the project objectives, and the time sequence in which these two types of risk occur.

The risk is addressed by many authors in their works. Burke defines risk management in projects as a process of identifying, analyzing, and responding to uncertainty (1999, pp. 229-235). Lientz and Rea present risk management in projects as the management of unresolved contentious issues that need to be resolved so that the project does not deviate four times from actual planning (1999, pp. 8 and 9). Kerzner also deals with risk in projects, as he believes that in every project we have to answer the question of what may prevent us from achieving the project goals and thus prepare for various uncertain developments (2001, p. 564). Like the project management process, the project risk management process can be divided into three phases – planning, implementing, and controlling strategies to reduce project risk.

 

Risk on projects - Milan Krajnc

The main task of project management is to achieve the set objectives of the project in all phases of the managed process. The success of the project is assessed in terms of achieving these goals. The main objectives, to which project management is directed, are the following (Kerzner, 1979, p. 318): time, costs, quality of project effects. In addition to these three goals, there is the goal of sufficient security in the project (Bonyuet, 2001, p. 49), which is actually only a condition for the achievement of the three basic goals and is not a goal in itself. Ideally, the project manager would be able to balance all three goals in the project. In reality, however, this is difficult, so that in project work the center of gravity of the triangle is often not reached. However, it is important that the project manager tries to get as close as possible to it. It has sometimes been thought that in different phases of the life cycle of a project, the meaning of the individual goals changes. Quality should come first, then cost and finally time. However, recent research has shown that this is not the case. Quality and time should be a more important objective than cost throughout the life of the project (Meredith, Mantel, 2000, p. 14).

However, as we start to implement the project and it approaches the end point, the project risk or the probability that the project objectives will not be achieved also decreases. Therefore, during the course of the project, new estimates of duration, cost and quality are often made at certain project intervals. In a similar way, Burke also describes the change in risk level in a project. In the beginning, the risk is greatest because much about the project is still unknown. However, as the project progresses and more decisions are made, the number of unknown variables decreases. At the end of the project, nothing is unknown anymore. Contrary to the decreasing risk level, the amount of invested funds exposed to risk increases continuously during the project.

By controlling the project we can discover the consequences of the realized risk, and by planning and executing the project we can reduce the probability of realization and the consequences of the project risk. No matter how much effort we invest in planning, implementation and control of a project, there
is always some risk in the way the project works. The future is unknown, and many undesirable events can occur in it, which represents various forms of risk. Sometimes we also deliberately maintain a certain risk. An integral part of project management is decision making, which is a methodical part of the management process. It is present in the planning, implementation and control of projects. One of the key components of project management is decision-making under conditions of uncertainty with the aim of balancing different types of risks associated with a particular problem. In the strictest sense, decision making is a choice between several different alternatives. People in life make decisions every
day and strive for efficiency. It is extremely important for the success and satisfaction of people as well as for the success of associations that they make the right decisions. In reality, most decisions are based on incomplete information and limited knowledge, so there is always the possibility that when we make a decision, we may not choose the one that would give the best results among the many options. So often the consequences of decisions are less favorable than one might imagine.

We say that we take risks when we make decisions. Sometimes this risk is high, sometimes negligible. The greater the risk, the more important it becomes to be aware of it and to try to control it. The risk is lower for repetitive decisions and activities where there are permanent solutions over time. The level of security increases slightly with each repetition and the risk of not achieving the objectives decreases. Over time, practitioners gain valuable experience and refine their skills so that they can perform a routine activity better, faster and cheaper next time. For one-off activities, such as projects, the risk is much higher because we make most decisions for the first time and the situation is unknown to us. We have no concrete experience and we learn on the fly during the project. The probability of choosing the wrong alternative is higher, and the consequences of such a wrong decision are often fatal for the whole project. Risk reduction is therefore a necessary part of project management.

The risk can be reduced by the project management process, especially by planning or thinking ahead. If the project manager is aware of the risks involved in the projects and if he takes them into account in the project plan, he ensures a higher probability of achieving the project goals. By carefully planning
who, when, and by what means has to carry out an individual activity, he or she reduces the risk of delays, insufficient resources, or a particular activity not being carried out. Good planning avoids unnecessary traffic jams and allows you to choose the best route. The planning process also provides a suitable basis for project control. When carrying out a project, the project manager must follow a plan that is flexible enough to accommodate any necessary changes. He or she must familiarize the project participants well with the project goals so that they understand them and are therefore more motivated to achieve them. He can also reduce risk by constantly monitoring the progress of the project. By comparing what is planned and implemented, it can identify possible deviations and take
timely action.

Risk on projects - Milan Krajnc

Risk can be described as the probability of undesired consequences of future events. It can also be described as a hazard, the possibility of a negative consequence or loss, the threat of inconvenience and the like. This definition covers only a negative view of risk, although every risk also has certain positive characteristics. It is a well-known fact in economic theory that a higher risk also allows a higher return. An old saying says that the greater the risk, the greater the reward (Clarke, Varma, 1999, p. 414).

So if there is a risk, there can also be an opportunity. In addition to the possibility of a greater reward, risk also brings with it the possibility of a greater loss associated with accepting a particular decision. The level of risk is acceptable if the potential gains exceed the potential losses. Each decision-maker must choose the most appropriate risk/reward ratio. If he is risk-averse, he will be prepared to accept it on a larger scale to ensure the possibility of a higher return or greater benefit. However, if the decision maker is not risk-averse, he will accept a smaller and more certain return. Some authors distinguish between risk and uncertainty. Uncertainty should arise when a person does not have sufficient
information to assess the likelihood of alternative solutions. However, risk should be a situation in which alternative solutions and probabilities can be determined that individual solutions will produce the desired result (Kavčič et al., 1994, pp. 223-225). We speak of risk when we can predict the results of business decisions with a certain probability distribution, and of uncertainty when this is not possible
(Prašnikar, Debeljak, 1998, p. 36; Kerzner, 2001, p. 908-913). Risk consists of two elements – the probability that something will happen and the negative consequences or losses that will follow if it does happen (Moder, Phillips, 1964, p. 196). In institutions, there is often a possibility that things will not go as planned. The probability of such an unfavorable development can be very high or very low.
The consequences of the risk can also be small or extensive or even fatal. As an example I can mention a project to build a new hotel, where there is a likelihood that there will be difficulties in obtaining a building permit. So there is also the possibility of negative consequences. It is possible that the hotel will be built with a delay, that it will have to be built elsewhere, that it will not be possible to build it at all, and so on. The likelihood of this risk occurring and the possible consequences of this risk must be assessed by the people responsible.

Uncertainty and risk are common terms in both probability theory and behavioral theory. Probability is strongly related to risk. It is one way of measuring uncertainty (Howes, 2001, p. 232). There are many mathematical and statistical definitions of probability, which are very complex. Probability theory attempts to quantify accurately and objectively the subjective statements we use every day when we say that something is “almost certain”, “very likely” or “almost impossible”. Statistics can be used to calculate the probability that an event will occur and the probability that it will not occur. The latter is called the risk of the event occurring (Košmelj, Rovan, 1997, p. 80). In simplified form, it takes the
probability of a value on a scale from zero to one. An event that will occur with zero probability is an impossible event, and one with one probability is a specific event. There is no risk in the latter. In reality, there are very few such extreme cases. Usually, events have a probability between zero and one, which means that they contain a certain degree of uncertainty. In statistical practice, the acceptable level of risk is usually less than 0.05, and in the management of projects a much higher risk is often acceptable. The risk could be completely eliminated if (Naylor, 1996, p. 81): they knew how to predict the future accurately, had enough influence to achieve the realization of the future as we had planned
it. Since both options are not feasible in the long run, we must accept risk, or at least a certain part of risk, as an integral part of life and of any project and its management. At least for the time being, we do not know how to predict the future accurately, nor can we influence it to the extent that all risk factors that could jeopardize our plans are eliminated.

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As projects are usually implemented under uncertain conditions, there was always a risk that the achievement of the project objectives would be jeopardized. Recently, as the project work method has gained ground, more and more different scientists and experts are dealing with risks – from economists, statisticians and organizers to insurance agents, energy engineers and building owners. The knowledge of project risks is constantly increasing. Various aspects of project risk are a central theme at many seminars, conferences and workshops around the world. Like risk in general, project risk consists of two elements (Moder, Phillips, 1964, p. 196): the probability that the risk will materialize and the negative consequences of a possible realization of the risk. Negative consequences for the
project mean that the project objectives will not be achieved. The project risk therefore represents any event that prevents or restricts the achievement of the project objectives, which must consequently be corrected or completely changed. Since the project objectives are always linked to specific costs, deadlines and the quality of the project’s effects, project risk is the risk of negative consequences, such as higher costs, extended deadlines or an insufficient quality of the project’s effects compared to the plan.

The process of project risk management has only recently become an area that the authors include in their work, so not much has been written about it. Most experts mention it only very superficially in their books on project management, and some even ignore it completely. Only a few people deal with the topic of risk management in greater depth and devote their entire work to it. The process of
project risk management has remained hidden and unexplored until today. It is still largely based on intuition, so that many project managers are not aware of the necessity of risk management. Only a few companies have developed a formal approach to project risk management (Thomsett, 2002, p. 161). Even today, in institutions with poorly developed project management, some related processes
are still designed separately, although they require the same skills and business elements. These are usually processes of project management, total quality management and competitive analysis. As the associations develop, they form a unified methodological system and link these processes together. In the next phase of development, the institutions further extend and improve the uniform methodology from the previous phase, as they strive for excellence in the field of project management. They are refining it by adding two new areas, change management and risk management, resulting in greater efficiency and effectiveness of these associations (Kerzner, 2001a, pp. 78-81). The area of risk management is still very unknown and underdeveloped, so that there are many uncertainties and unsolved problems.

IDENTIFICATION OF ALL POSSIBLE TYPES OF RISK IN PROJECTS

As soon as we start risk management, we have to identify all possible forms of risks that could jeopardize the achievement of the project goals. It is a matter of identifying all possible types of risks that are known to the project manager and the other project participants right at the beginning of risk management. Later in the risk management process, new types of risks may be discovered (Verzuh,
1999, p. 86).

We must first determine what types of indirect risks may occur in a particular project. Some also call these types risk factors (Royer, 2002, p. 18). Indirect risks cannot be quantified directly, but can only be stated descriptively. It is a qualitative risk. When it is implemented, it causes a direct risk to occur in the project. It is therefore the cause of the risk of delays, cost overruns and inadequate quality of project impact. It is part of the unfavorable development of events in the project and indirectly leads to the three most important project objectives not being achieved. Each risk has one or more causes and one or more consequences. The causes of indirect risk are very diverse and depend on the nature of the
indirect risk. The cause of the weather-related risk is a specific natural process, and the cause of the risk of late delivery can be a lack of work organization on the part of the supplier. Indirect risk leads to the occurrence of a direct project risk. The cause of the direct risk is therefore the realized indirect risk, and the consequences of the realized direct risk can be delays, excessive costs or insufficient quality in the project.
The following elements, among others, help us to determine the indirect risk:

  • own experiences and experiences of others with projects,
  • theoretical knowledge in certain areas,
  • recorded data on previous projects,
  • general information on the project in question,
  • Intuition,
  • creative thinking (brainstorming),
  • various techniques such as questionnaires, interviews, scenario analysis and the like.

The importance of experience in project risk management is particularly emphasized by Shepherd (1999, pp. 55-57). There are lists of many possible types of indirect risks that project participants can rely on in their work. These lists can vary greatly between different activities, and each institution often needs to draw up its own list tailored to its needs and circumstances. In such a list, the risk is divided according to whether the source of the risk is inside or outside the project. However, both broader groups are still divided into several more specific types of indirect risk.

1. external risk or risk due to the environment:

a) risk due to the natural environment:

  • weather risk,
  • terrain-related risk,
  • risk of natural disasters,

b) risk due to the legal environment:

  • risk due to changes in legislation,
  • contract risk,
  • property risk and theft,

c) risk due to the social environment:

  • risk due to cultural differences (norms, habits, traditions),
  • risk through public resistance (environmentalists, influential groups),
  • risk due to political factors (change of government, opposition to government),

d) Risk due to the economic environment:

  • risk related to the stability of the economy as a whole (inflation, taxes),
  • risk related to the stability of the business units involved in the project,
  • risk related to the stability of the association,

e) technological risk:

  • the risk of the inadequacy of existing technology,
  • the risk of the existing technology becoming obsolete,
  • the risk associated with the use or development of new technologies,

f) risk related to working capital:

  • the risk of injury and damage to work equipment,
  • risk of insufficient capacity of labor resources,
  • risk of technical changes,

g) risk due to suppliers:

  • risk of late delivery,
  • risk related to the quality of the work tasks delivered,
  • risk with regard to the quantity of work items delivered,
  • risk related to the price of the work elements supplied,

h) risk by the association manager:

  • the risk of lack of support for the project by the main leaders of the association,
  • risk of conflicts between project managers and other managers in the association,

i) risk from external contractors

  • risk due to insufficient commitment of external contractors to the project,
  • risk of non-compliance with project requirements by external contractors,

j) risk due to customers or end-users of project effects:

  • the risk of changes in customer requirements,
  • risk of customer dissatisfaction,
  • risk of poor cooperation with customers,

k) other external risk.

2. internal risk or risk related to project management:

a) project planning risk:

  • the risk of inadequate assessment of project duration or project costs: (a) project planning risk
  • the risk of omitting certain activities from the plan
  • risk of poor definition of project objectives,
  • risk of neglecting project objectives
  • the risk of using incomplete information,

b) the project implementation risk:

  • the risk of an insufficient number of project team members,
  • the “hidden” risk of staff shortages,
  • risk of conflicts within the project team,
  • risk of weak motivation of project team members
  • communication risk regarding expectations
  • the risk of not meeting the expectations of the project team members
  • risk of absence of project team members (illness, delays),
  • the risk of inefficiency, inexperience and incompetence of the project manager and other members of the project team,
  • risk of insufficient information support in the project

c) project control risk:

  • the risk of neglecting certain areas of project control,
  • risk of an out-of-date control of the project,
  • risk of lack of control by external experts,
Risk on projects - Milan Krajnc

d) other internal risk.

Only some types of indirect risk are listed, as it would be impossible to list them all. Other types of risk are found in every project, such as the risk of overloading project participants and

the risk due to insufficient coordination of external staff. The project manager and other members of the project team, as well as external contractors and end-users of the impact of the project, must be involved in identifying possible types of indirect risks that may occur in a given project. It is advisable to follow Murphy’s principle that “if something can go wrong, it will go wrong”. (Verzuh, 1999, p. 83). This is the easiest way to identify all the factors that endanger the project. In addition to the indirect risks, it is necessary to determine the direct types of project risks, which are the consequences of the indirect risk realized. Different types of direct risks can also be called risk groups (Royer, 2002, p. 32). The most
logical and simplest way is to classify the direct risk into three types. The types of direct risk in projects are therefore as follows:

  1. the time risk,
  2. the financial risk,
  3. the quality risk.

The division of project risk into direct and indirect is a further development of the division of risk into time risk, financial risk and quality risk. The latter subdivision actually only covers the direct types of project risk. The first subdivision also covers indirect risks in the project, which are the cause of the occurrence of direct risks. The classification of direct project risk covers the second part of the causeand- effect relationship already mentioned, the consequences. For example, if the indirect risk of conflicts within the project team materializes, this is the cause for the occurrence of the time risk in the project.

The time risk is direct and represents a kind of consequence of the indirect risk. If the direct risk then materializes, there is actually a delay in the project. Both the delay and the overrun of the project costs and the insufficient quality of the project effects are the final consequences of the project risk or the consequences of the realized direct risk. The realized direct risk is then followed by various measures –
from material penalties to verbal warnings. The direct risk can be quantified to a certain extent, and it can be treated with numerical data. Part of the direct risk can only be included in the project plan in a descriptive way, and we rely mainly on intuition when dealing with it. This risk can therefore be quantitative or qualitative. Since the realization of the indirect project risk is the cause of the occurrence of the direct risk, which is the central danger of any project, the role of indirect risk in
projects is to a certain extent secondary. The management of this risk is as important as the management of direct risk, but the essence of both management processes is to prevent or reduce the probability of realization of direct risk types and their consequences. The essence of determining the types of direct risks that threaten the project is to link causes and consequences. For each type of indirect risk it is necessary to determine which of the three consequences it causes.

In most cases, a particular type of indirect risk can involve both the risk of delays and higher costs and the risk of insufficient quality of the project’s effects. For example, there is the risk of changes in customer requirements. However, sometimes an indirect risk can also be the cause of only one or two
types of direct risk. The risk related to the price of the delivered work items is only the cause of a financial risk. The direct risk can be linked to a broader, business risk (Royer, 2002, pp. 32-33). The realization of the direct risk, that is, the failure to achieve project goals, can lead to operational or strategic risks at the level of the company as a whole. A failed project with delays, excessive costs or
deviations in the quality of the project effects can have a negative impact on the operational or strategic level of the institution, as it can jeopardize both the ongoing operation and the implementation of its longer-term strategies.
The causes of any risk, both indirect and direct, are an important element in dealing with this risk (Kerzner, 2001, p. 905). 

If the project manager knows the causes of a particular risk, it is easier to deal with it. However, he should not confuse the causes of the risk with its consequences. Dealing with the causes is usually more effective and easier than dealing with the consequences. The project manager must therefore
 irst try to eliminate or reduce the indirect risk. If he does not succeed in this, he must at least manage the direct risk as far as possible, so that it does not occur and lead to delays, cost overruns or insufficient quality of the project. 

Certain indirect risks remain in the project despite the efforts of the project manager to eliminate or reduce them. He has accepted the remaining risk and must now prepare for the consequences of a possible realization of this risk. These consequences are the occurrence of various types of direct risks in the project. The project manager must implement strategies to reduce the probability of a real project risk occurring. The project manager can prevent or reduce the probability of a direct risk occurring by using emergency plans. However, he can also do this by perfecting project planning, implementation or control. If the realization of an immediate risk cannot be prevented, he must accept this risk and deal with its ultimate consequences.

The project plan must be designed in such a way that it allows quantitative measurements of what has been achieved at certain intervals, which must be defined in advance. The planning must take place at least two levels – at the level of the overall project and at the level of the individual activities. With the first, the project manager creates a general overview of the project, with the second he defines the implementation of each individual activity. The planning should be neither too detailed nor too superficial. The project manager should not just pay attention to one particular risk and ignore all other possible types of risk (Kerzner, 1979, p. 428). By following these instructions, the direct project risk can be reduced. The direct risk can also be reduced during project implementation. A very effective method of reducing time risk can be to develop and use specific indicators that warn the project manager when a project is approaching the risk of delay. This method directs the project manager’s attention to the future and allows him to take active action instead of reacting passively to the risk of delay already realized. The system of leading indicators warns of the risk that the project will
not progress as planned. It is based on the determination of how much work remains to be done and how much time is left until the project is completed (Winslow, 2001, pp. 54-57). If the project manager determines that the necessary work cannot be completed on time, he must take immediate action. He or she must accelerate the implementation of certain activities or adjust the project plan. Of course, the project risk can also be reduced within the framework of project management.

CONCLUSION

Projects are becoming more and more important nowadays, as the fierce competition on the global market, increasing customer requirements, constant technological and other changes and the rapid development of knowledge require the most efficient way of association work. Therefore, more and more institutions are using the project approach in their companies, which is one of the ways to gain a competitive advantage. More and more authors devote their works to the characteristics of projects and their execution. There is always a risk in project work because projects are one-off activities with which project participants come into contact for the first time and about which they have little information. The need for risk management is therefore usually present in projects, but the part about project risk and the manager with it is still relatively small. Moreover, the future in which the projects will take place is never fully known. One has to be aware that only predictions about the future are always possible, because one cannot know exactly what the future will look like. The result of good planning is always only an approximation of what will actually be realized in the future. Many different types of project risks are known, but the types of risks are most often exposed according to their relationship to the project objectives. These types are the time risk, the financial risk and the risk due to the quality of the project effects. However, the risk can be divided into direct and indirect, depending on the way in which the project objectives are affected.

Avtor - Milan Krajnc

Author of the article: Milan Krajnc, pedagogue, entrepreneur & crisis manager
I teach you to look “at yourself” as a third person. For more information or an introductory meeting, write to me at official@milankrajnc.com

Don’t philosophize, rather create! Milan Krajnc
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Do not philosophize, but create!

If you have an idea or a wish, you must put it into action as soon as possible, but not as savages, but calmly and calculatingly, you must prepare well for each campaign and then see it through to the end.

If you play on the “first ball”, you will find yourself in a fog, if you do not act, you will continue to
philosophize.

In the past, I never knew what consultants did, but research agencies … Everyone was talking about
selling fog. Although, on the other hand, I wondered if they were selling fog, if anyone could buy it. So fog is a lucrative business.

So I went down to explore fog, and as a project management consultant I became its salesman myself.

Even with the first customer I encountered complaints: “Do not philosophize, work – we thought you would do our projects for us and not tell us how to do them. We already know how to work, we just do not have time for everything. “Then I lost all confidence and the fog fell on my eyes:” Yes, what should I do now, should I just grab a shovel and help them work. “

I said to myself: “Do not philosophize, create!” I asked them if I could review their previous projects to see how they work, and then maybe I could actually do some of their projects to make it easier for me. After analyzing all the project documentation, invoices, minutes, contracts, and accounts, I found that
not a single project ended with a profit, or at most a big deficit, but since they had many projects, starting a new project covered the loss of the past. After three days I found out that although they had  enough money in the account and paid the bills on time, they were making bigger and bigger losses because the money they were working with did not really belong to them. They created a virtual reality
for themselves. I created an image analysis for them with a focus on finances.

But then the fog fell on their eyes, and I told them: “Guys, do not philosophize, start creating!” You have done nothing so far, you are in debt, you have created nothing, you are tired of trying too hard. It’s time to start projects, to work on projects.

So we divided each project into three phases, equally distributed in time. One third for preparation, one third for implementation and one third for completion. They did not give in any more, neither with their employees nor with the customers. They began to stand up for themselves and say a resounding
“YES” or “NO”. They trusted themselves and others and began to stand out from the operation. After a good year of this way of working, they paid back all their loans, went on vacation after five years and took care of family matters, and the money they have in the transaction account is actually theirs.

And what did they do about it? They bought a fog car.

Don’t philosophize, rather create! Milan Krajnc

Counseling is still seen as a fog, unfortunately counseling cannot be taken in hand, but its effects are measurable. In particular, before one decides to use consulting services, goals must be set and measurable results achieved (current account situation, well-being, time spent). However, since many consultants do not know how to set goals for themselves, the term has come to be used: Sell fog. You do not really get advice from the end product, but “dispels” the fog you have created for yourself.

The words: “Do not philosophize, but create” can be equated with “walk like a cat around boiling porridge”. The most vivid way to show yourself is to conquer. When a man sees a “beauty,” he first consults with friends, and then they talk about her all evening, and maybe a week later, and in the end he never approaches her because he thinks he is not good enough for her anyway. The “beauties” are not “bav-bav”, they would react when he approaches her and answer her when he sees her. Chances are that he could win her too, since most women like direct men. Women are even more aware that life is fleeting, so they need “action” with them!

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If you have an idea or a wish, you must put it into action as soon as possible, but not as savages, but calmly and calculatingly, you must prepare well for each campaign and then see it through to the end.

If you play on the “first ball”, you will find yourself in a fog, if you do not act, you will continue to philosophize.

Avtor - Milan Krajnc
Author of the article: Milan Krajnc, pedagogue, entrepreneur & crisis manager I teach you to look “at yourself” as a third person. For more information or an introductory meeting, write to me at official@milankrajnc.com
What is a project office? Milan Krajnc
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What is a project office

Before we start to set up a new organization scheme and structure, we have to carry out a very detailed analysis of the whole company. With this information we draw a map of the current real situation in the organization. At the same time we draw the ideal structure of the project office according to the wishes of the company, public institution, association and the like. This organization then decides for itself which way it wants to go.

A project office is not just a software, but a way of organizing a work process, work organization and way of thinking.

Research has shown that most companies are convinced that they use project management in their
process. However, when asked what a project and what a project office is, only half a percent of
respondents answered correctly. 340 Slovenian companies were included in the survey. A good half of them already have a project office, and only half of them actually use it. And 82 percent of the respondents believe that the project office is software.

Due to a misunderstanding of the term project, project management is also misunderstood. Our project work is too “domestic”: that we all do everything and are responsible for everything. In project work, tasks and responsibilities are precisely defined. There is no more collective responsibility. Project work brings order and organization into the processes of organizations. However, it is important that the entire work process is project based, otherwise there will be confusion.

Introduction of a project office

Before we start to set up a new organizational chart and set up the structure, we have to make a very detailed analysis of the whole company, namely:

  • Analysis of the information flow (what information is exchanged by the employees, what is created, what comes and goes into the company)
  • Analysis of the inventory of processes and the links between them;
  • personality analysis of employees (character, reaction in critical situations, communication, leadership and the like),
  • Analysis of business documents (contracts, travel orders, files, regulations, etc.),
  • Analysis of information systems.

With this information we draw a map of the current real situation in the organization. At the same time we draw the ideal structure of the project office according to the wishes of the company, public institution, association and the like. This organization then decides for itself which way it wants to go.

What all can influence the choice of the path? Flexibility of the individual, change in internal distribution, systematization of jobs, new jobs, new information system, excessive stagnation of production and whatever else could be found. Indeed, the analysis says something about the state of the company and gives a clear picture of what a change in the way of working means. In this way we can find out how the individual reacts, what motivates him, what his strengths are. We analyze where and why bottlenecks occur in the process, where the process has time reserves and where cost savings are possible. In the following we also find out what possibilities there are to introduce a supporting information system.

When a customer decides on a path – it is very important whether he keeps the same team of employees or hires new ones – all employees must be involved.

The project office has only one manager

The organization of a project office requires that all things are in one place. If we look at the picture of the roles in a project-led organization, we see that such a project organization chart has only one leader. He cannot be the leader of any project (then he would not be supervised by anyone), but he can be the contractor. The head of the project office is the director of the organization. As an outside observer, he is unencumbered by the project and therefore notices errors earlier. If the organization is very large, control of the projects is taken over by its assistants, who are specialized in individual professional fields. However, they have to change the area of control from time to time so that they do not fall into fixed patterns.

What is project office - Milan Krajnc
Slika 1: Vloge v projektno vodeni organizaciji

The director is the head of the project office and his assistant is the assistant to the project office. The department heads in the organization are now project managers. However, all others in the organization take on the role of contractors. The project manager selects them according to the content of the project. The departments are transformed into project teams according to the company strategy.

For each project, a team of individuals must be put together who are focused on the same goal and are very independent. Tasks must be carefully divided, communication rules written and expectations clearly formulated. It is therefore best if each individual prepares a report and a plan for the execution of his or her task before starting work. In this way, the project manager will see if everyone
understands him and what he can expect from them. It is important to know how the individuals complement each other and in which areas the tasks are interdependent.  Project work requires serious, team-oriented work.

A typical project meeting

The project team must meet once every 14 days. It only differs if a problem arises that can be solved by the project manager and the individual designer. At project meetings we only talk about projects. Everyone must be informed at all times about changes that affect the progress of the project.

Minutes must be taken of each meeting. The minutes are only a document that is completed. It is recommended to keep the minutes of the forum.

Meeting rules:

  • The meeting must be convened at least one week (several) days before the meeting. The participants of the meeting must then also receive all documents and the agenda.
  • Before the meeting all those present switch off their mobile phones.
  • The meeting is chaired by the person who has organized it.
  • The agenda is read first.
  • The participants make suggestions for the agenda and approve it.
  • The first item of the sitting should be the adoption of the minutes of the previous sitting.
  • The minutes are drawn up by the deputy project leader during the sitting.
  • The minutes should contain questions (indicate who asked them) and answers (write who answered) and conclusions on each item.
  • Only one person should take the floor and at the end of their deliberations give the floor to the next person who wishes to add their comments.
  • All minutes of meetings are stored electronically on the intranet site.

Who is the project manager

We are all project managers who are involved in the project in any way. The first rule of a project
manager is to be honest. There is no manipulation in the project. Everyone must have all the information to do their job smoothly and take full responsibility for it. The project manager must be an independent person, but he or she must communicate with others and must not insist on his or her decision if it is not correct.

Poor communication leads to conflicts

The project can encounter problems for various reasons: mostly due to poor communication or a misunderstanding of the project goal, but also due to exploitation for personal interests.

We solve bad communication by asking everyone involved to give a written report about their work so far and a plan for the future and asking them what they think needs to be done. But we must give them clear rules for reporting. Then we prepare a joint workshop in which we reconcile the common goals so that there are no excuses and no transfer of responsibility to others. Let’s draw up a detailed
error plan, and the prerequisite for a successful solution to the problem is that the project plan was well prepared in the initial phase and that all responsibilities were laid down in the contract.

Employees are also projects

When selecting employees, we have to treat them as if each one were their own project, but of course only in this process. That sounds tough, but we must have the same rules for everyone, so that the relationship does not become strained or we do not have a guilty conscience. We must be very clear and honest about what we expect from them and what their obligations are, and we must emphasize our obligations to them. In a personal meeting, the relationship must of course be honest and friendly.

Project management in public institutions

In public institutions, projects should be more closely monitored, as public money is spent. Since they are supervised by regulatory authorities, the proper management of an individual project is very important. Let us just mention the legally correct implementation of public procurement for major investments. The procedure and documentation is extensive, reports have to be written, costs have to be monitored and so on.

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Because of the way it works, it is most effective to connect public institutions within the city administration as a common service. More and more public institutions are faced with survival or extensive administration, and in such situations they do not worry about the functioning of the project. By connecting under the auspices of the city administration, they can significantly reduce their operating costs. Joint services are set up, specializing in administration, maintenance, accounting, event organization and the like, and each public institution can devote itself to the professional work for which it was set up.

A project is a self-contained unit of tasks with a well-defined goal and a known beginning and end. The work on the project is called project management, and the institution that manages the projects is called project office.
The employees are supposed to work and are also paid by the project.

Avtor - Milan Krajnc
Author of the article: Milan Krajnc, pedagogue, entrepreneur & crisis manager I teach you to look “at yourself” as a third person. For more information or an introductory meeting, write to me at official@milankrajnc.com
Municipality as a project office - Milan Krajnc
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Municipality as a Project Office

In our work of reorganizing municipal administrations, we always make an analysis / snapshot of the current situation. We find that some work is duplicated, that there are delays in the flow of information, that employees often do not know at what stage the projects are and that employees and management do not understand each other or they speak a “different language”.

The most common findings that lead to “chaos” or the situation in the municipal administration is unclear strategy and direction of the municipality, if the definition of who is the “first” superior to employees (mayor, director, head of office) is unclear, poor communication, consequently unclear distributed work (too general systematization), unevenly distributed responsibility, different conception of projects… As a solution to the situations that arose, we saw a different way of working and organization of the municipal administration. Thus, in ten years of work, we have developed a system of organization of the municipality in the form of a Project Office, and the mode of operation according to the Dynamic Communication Model.

Dinamični model vodenja. Milan Krajnc. Tiskana knjiga.

When we find problems in the organization of the municipal administration, it is difficult to point to the culprit or to the true cause of the error. Most of us are of the opinion that the problems in the organization stem mainly from management, which is a special feature in municipal administrations, as in principle the management is changed every four years, which means that there is not enough time to implement major visible changes. Each mayor also has his own views on the management of the municipality, his own expectations and his own way of working. The team in the municipality in most cases remains unchanged, but in practice it means that every four years they have to adapt and change the way they work… The biggest problem faced by employees in the municipal administration is the unclear definition of superiority. Many times the mayor directly delegates tasks to each employee, and then he receives instructions from the director and / or directly from the chief or head of offices. Work practice suggests that most employees so often receive different information from different sources (superiors) for the same task, which in turn leads to confusion. This is often the main reason for congestion in the municipality, given the fact that municipalities do not have a clearly defined development plan, as a basis for the implementation of project and work activities.

The role of the mayor in the project office

The most important thing is that everyone in the municipal administration performs their tasks and adheres to their responsibilities and competencies. If we explain… the mayor should never be directly involved in the work of the municipal administration, but should contact through the director of the municipal administration. The role of the mayor is more presentable than operational, he is the link between the “people” and the municipal administration, when he tries to realize the wishes of the people through mayoralty within the set goals.

This means that the municipal administration is run exclusively by the director, who has a duty to be in constant contact and coordination with the mayor. In practice, municipalities are also often the founders of various public institutes and agencies. All these institutions are budget users and were established for public good purposes. This means that the municipality must actively cooperate with them, control the use of funds and together with them follow the vision of the municipality. Public institutes and agencies should be understood as an extension of the municipality for the realization of the set vision, where the mayor plays an important role as a coordinator. We have already mentioned that the mayor should not interfere in the operational work of the municipal administration, but should only communicate regularly with the director of the municipal administration. The mayor should also regularly communicate with all directors of public institutes and agencies whose founder or co-founder is the municipality. It is important that all these institutions interact in a unified way in order to achieve the same goals. Even in this case, the mayor must not interfere in the operational work of these institutions. Following the example of the function entrusted to him, it represents only a close link between the institution itself and the municipality, especially from the point of view of the strategic development of the municipality and following the set vision. Unfortunately, we perceive that the practice of Slovenian mayors is often the opposite. Mayors are too involved in the operation itself and therefore often overburdened. The ordinances on the establishment of municipalities clearly define the responsibilities and competencies of the mayor, but in practice this is not the case in most cases.

Občina kot projektna pisarna - Milan Krajnc
Picture 1

If we looked today at how many Slovenian municipalities have a clearly set vision and development strategy, we would be surprised by the modest number. You could say that mayors are not aware enough of their mission. If we allow ourselves to express it symbolically, the mayor is the “voice of the people”. Mayorship should not be an individual experience of achieving political goals, but goals laid by citizens. Certainly politics plays its role here, but when the mayor takes office, he must not represent only his political interests, but the interests of the entire municipality.
However, a strategy set and written down somewhere is not enough to achieve strategic goals. The role of the mayor should be, together with the representatives of the citizens, to regularly monitor whether the set strategy satisfactorily follows the vision and enables the achievement of the set goals. Here, however, we encounter responsibility itself. The mayor is responsible for successfully achieving strategic goals, but practice shows that strategic goals are often set too abstractly and unattainably. In our opinion, part of the responsibility should be prepared to take on those who participated in setting these goals, we are talking about councilors who have a very important role in the development of the municipality. It is the councilors who are the voice of the people who are entrusted to represent the interests of the citizens. It turns out, however, that this role is often intertwined with political machinations. In favor of real efficiency, those who participated in their setting – councilors – should also take part of the responsibility for unrealistically set goals.

Picture 1 clearly indicates that the mayor must act more externally, i.e. be in constant contact and available to the citizens, and at the same time take care of inter-municipal and international integration.

The mayor is obliged to take on the role of coordinator of all key institutions that pursue the same goal set by the citizens. It is also the mayor who should give clear instructions to the directors, who should take care of the efficiency of their employees. Slovenian practice shows that with the new mayor, a new reorganization of the municipality often follows. Due to some new interests, this is understandable, but the reorganization should not be dealt operationally by the mayor, but by the director. The mayor must give the director of the municipal administration only clear guidelines for the development of the municipality, and the director must judge whether he can pursue new goals with the current organizational structure and staff, or whether certain changes will be needed in the municipal administration. It follows that the reorganization of the municipal administration and other support institutions should be carried out only when the development guidelines are clearly defined, ie when the goals that follow the vision are known and when the strategy of the municipality is clearly defined.

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The importance of the vision and development plan as a basis for project activities in the municipality

We all like to remember the election promises that the future first people of the municipality promise us in favor of their victory. Which of the candidates will offer a program that will be written on the skin of our voters? Sports enthusiastically, citizens applaud the new sports hall, culturists take the side of the candidate who offers a cultural home, businessmen demand an industrial zone, and so on. No, this is not a description of pre-election health issues that would betray the municipality in which I live, in fact it is a description of events that can be identified, I am sure, with each of the Slovenian municipalities in our country. And when, after certain terms of office, we look back, which is supposed to be our duty and responsibility to the voters, we find that the long-awaited pre-election promises have been shattered or that they have been partially fulfilled, but still do not meet our expectations. likeable image of our municipality. So we ask ourselves, why is that? Let us recall ko .when, on the basis of the adopted legislation, municipalities in Slovenia began to be established like mushrooms after the rain, their intention was to free themselves as newly formed municipalities from the shackles of connections of the then joint municipal administrations and get the opportunity to develop in the direction of local circumstances. most expedient and priority. But alas, we note, for the most part it was left only on an untapped opportunity. When we talk about the development of the municipality, following the example of Slovenian envy, we began to compare ourselves with neighboring, usually incomparable municipalities, while forgetting to take advantage of local development opportunities, which should be used as an advantage. We think wrongly if we think it is important in the foreground to have a football stadium in every municipality, without it being worthwhile to focus on the individuality that each municipality has.

In the municipality, projects cannot take place uncontrolled, as we like to say overnight, but they must be set in the long run. The most important is the development program for the next ten years, which roughly defines what the municipality will do in the next ten years and how it will use its advantages and potential at the highest level. Even earlier, however, the municipality needs a vision, according to our estimates for the next fifty years. The vision is formed on the basis of natural features and history, in that area. The municipality must have a clear direction on whether to focus on tourism, sports, production, industry… in such a small area we cannot have everything at once, but we must give priority to only one, and other activities are partially adapted. “What will be the bridge over the river where there is no water?”
Only when we have a vision, we can create a Development Plan, which defines the content and timing of projects that will lead to the desired state. It is expedient for the Development Plan to be prepared primarily by citizens, under professional guidance.

The municipality must undertake the development plan comprehensively and invite representatives of various interest groups, the economy… in short, in connection with several different local individuals, who are divided into interest groups. Of course, everyone must be citizens of that municipality. The entire design of the development plan should be led by qualified experts in the field of strategy, project management and communication, who are desirable to be from another place, perhaps even from another region, as they are unencumbered by local problems and much easier to guide groups moving away. from the purpose of socializing or get complicated. As mentioned, the groups should be composed of interests; namely in the field of sports, culture, education, economy… each group formulates its own ideas and proposals, which are then formed in consensus into a comprehensive document. The communication system follows a pyramid system, where suggestions are formed below and then formed vertically into a final opinion. This is not a program of political parties or members of a certain current, but a program of the entire municipality. Only in this way does the program gain credibility, stability and independence. In fact, it should be called “some” world that would take care of tracking and developing this program. Only a development plan can contribute to the long-term rational development of the municipality and thus also to a stable environment, which will be taken into account by the leaders of the municipality in their implementation, neglecting their own interests when changing the term of office. The development plan must be based on the interest of local development and aimed at a meaningful and long-term integrated image of the municipality. The program of candidates in local elections should contain only concrete guidelines with set time and financial plans for the implementation of the adopted development plan, and show their excellence in the implementation of individual items of the plan. After all, only municipalities that have pre-made detailed project drafts and clear projections of local development will be successful in public tenders for drawing state and European funds. It is in this direction that we should think when we talk about the effective development of the municipality in general.

Preparation of the budget on the basis of the development plan

As already mentioned, the basic guidelines should be followed by the mayors in their election promises, because otherwise the program has no value and the municipality consequently begins to deviate from its essence, and above all, development stops. On the basis of the election program or realization of the development plan had to work mainly on concrete solutions and optimization or. innovation of modern times. The electoral program must be a very concrete upgrade of the Development Plan and the basis for the preparation of the budget for an individual year, the responsibility for the preparation of which lies exclusively with the professional services of the municipal administration. The budget as such, in terms of its content and timing, in a way represents a project year, and as such it should be considered, and a map drawn up to realize the realization. Each budget item independently or as a set of several budget items represents an ongoing project and a series of processes, which in the course of implementation take place in different terms, content and finances to the set goal (if we take into account that all projects aim to implement the Development Plan) . That is why a common understanding of the term “project” seems important. The project, from which the project management skills derive in the implementation phase, has four basic stages: definition of goals, planning, production – monitoring and completion of the project.

Based on the knowledge of the situation in the municipalities, we find that they know how to establish a budget quite well, but later lose control over monitoring the implementation and intermediate status of individual projects. A timetable needs to be drawn up for how the budget will be spent.

Tracking the realization of set projects on the basis of budget items

A clear visual picture of the real situation is expressed at some point by a gantt chart.

Občina kot projektna pisarna - Milan Krajnc
Figure 2: Planned activities

We add the duration and execution time from which we make a gantt chart (see Figure 3).

Občina kot projektna pisarna - Milan Krajnc
Figure 3: Gantt chart

The data collected and uniformly created offer a comprehensive overview of the use of funds in the local community, also in connecting municipalities in joint projects when it comes to drawing state funds or European Union funds. Such monitoring of the use of budget control follows the thesis of the expected value of project implementation and provides security and assurance that the municipality independently or in conjunction with another municipality, with timely activities satisfies the planned content, timing and financial plan of projects and achieves full traceability of earmarked spending.
Given the interdependence with human factors, the overview of the availability of employees, responsible persons and contractors within the municipal administration and their share of occupancy on a particular project should not be neglected, which is the basis for planning employee involvement in other work responsibilities in the municipality. With this type of review, we achieve a more rational distribution of the employee’s work tasks and ensure an even workload of employees and relieve overburdened individuals, as we also compose a matrix of competencies and responsibilities for implementation. This information will tell us a realistic picture of project implementation.

Project design

Above all, it is important that we have enough time to prepare for projects. Good project preparation does not only mean setting a schedule or another plan, but a whole set of processes that, in interdependence, significantly affect the subsequent efficiency and effectiveness of project implementation and the achievement of the basic objectives of the project. The data indicate that only about 30% of all projects are actually completed on time, within the estimated costs, with the expected results and the final impact. 20% of projects do not end, while as many as 50% are final, but with changed final goals and expectations. The results of the analysis of projects in Slovenian municipalities reveal that the reasons for this are that projects are rushed, whether an insufficient number of employees are involved in their implementation, or that decisions are made too late, tenders appear at the last minute…. The relatively high level of project implementation failure is largely influenced by the inadequacy of project preparation, and vice versa, when we talk about successfully implemented projects, ie those that were well prepared. In short, if we want the project to return the invested investment in the long run, without itself becoming the subject of a new investment (debugging), it is necessary to prepare well for it and later complete it correctly. The consequences of premature moves on projects are manifested in not achieving the desired results and exceeding the planned value of projects.
With the image of the Gantt chart that we create, we actually see which projects are realistic or we can organize them so that they are realistically derived, not just to meet our impatience. With a visual display, we will get to the optimization, time and financial costs faster. At the same time, we will divide the work among the employees so that they will use 50% of the time for process work (as required by law) and 50% of the time for projects and development, which are projections for an efficient municipal administration.

Občina kot projektna pisarna - Milan Krajnc
Figure 4: Relationship between project and process work

Organizing the entire municipal administration with the elements of a project office

The Municipal Administration performs operational tasks in accordance with the set plan of the municipality and mandatory tasks defined by law. The work of the municipal administration is organized and supervised by the director of the municipal administration. Therefore, all tasks to employees must come from the top, which is represented in the municipal administration by the director. The mayor should not get involved in solving operational problems and problems. Employees are also not allowed to turn to the mayor in their work. First and foremost, they must first turn to their first superior, who can escalate higher, which means that this can be the later superior of our first superior, as long as we don’t get to the director. For the director, however, this path of resolving operational matters is coming to an end. In our experience, however, it often happens that employees turn directly to the mayor. Of course, we cannot say that this is merely a habit of the employees, as the mayors themselves often delegate tasks past the director. And when the delegation of tasks from several directions begins, then we can talk about “organized chaos”. And in this “chaos,” information begins to be lost and responsibilities transferred to co-workers. To make the confusion even greater, according to most of the employees in the municipal administration, it seems that such a way of communication and operation of the municipal administration is completely normal, if not necessary for the performance of public good tasks.
So, if we want the municipal administration to work efficiently, then we must first clarify the very concept of efficiency. The municipal administration should not differ in its way of operating from a company that is on the market. On the contrary, it should take even more account of the laws of the market. Some would say the municipality has nothing to do with the market. However, we are often mistaken here. The municipality markets itself, and the potential buyers are the citizens that the municipality wants to bring to its environment, as well as the citizens that it wants to keep in its municipality. We could say that the municipality has its market share as large as the population of the municipality. Each individual municipality has the opportunity to increase its market share only if it knows how to behave market-wise and attract as many potential new citizens as possible to its environment. The higher the “market share” of the municipality, the higher the funds from the budget. However, it should also be taken into account that municipalities are under the scrutiny of various inspectorates as well as the public themselves due to the disposal of public funds, and this should be an additional reason for market behavior.

Effective and rational operation can be achieved when each employee is aware of their responsibilities and works as a team. In practice, we found that the project approach is also of key importance in municipal administrations. This means that employees need to learn to think project-wise. Every task they carry out must be taken as a project, be it a more or less large-scale project. Each staff member’s task provides for its purpose, its purpose, its content, the deadline and the specific staff to perform it. It is necessary to establish control over individual projects – tasks and to establish an efficient flow of information, as communication plays a key role in every organization.

In the company Sirius.si d.o.o. we have developed a dynamic model of communication in the municipal administration, with the aim of accelerating the flow of information and establishing control over all events. When we talk about supervision, this does not mean that the director must establish control over the operation of the entire municipal administration, but that each employee must establish control over his work and over the information at his disposal. Most tasks in the municipal administration are interdependent among employees. Each individual should clearly define in what form and to what extent his predecessor must provide him with certain information in order to be able to carry out his task effectively in a process. At the same time, he must carry out his activity by passing it on in accordance with the expectations of the staff member involved in the process behind him.
This way of working requires an ongoing exchange of information. However, it is true that employees should first be taught the basics of the project approach, as we find that usually each employee understands the meaning of the project in their own way.

Practice has shown that most employees in the municipal administration understand the “project” only as tenders from EU funds. And, if everyone understands the meaning of the project differently, then it means that there are problems in communication, so it is necessary to unify communication first and establish the “same” language of communication with employees.

The same approach should be used for more demanding investment projects, except that there is a greater scope of tasks and thus greater responsibility of all involved. In these projects, we suggest that part of the responsibility be assumed by those who participated in the creation of the idea itself, or are “guilty” of the creation of the project. These are the saints. Namely, all major and demanding projects are carried out in accordance with the “wishes” of the councilors. And if someone was involved in the creation of the project idea itself, then they should also be involved in the further process of planning, preparation and implementation as a project manager. It means that the Councilors lead their areas and are project managers, while the professional associates are operatives. With such an approach, the municipality would be easier to achieve the set goals, and part of the responsibility would be transferred to the “creators” of the development of the municipality. With such a way of working, the municipality would operate in the form of a project office, supported by a dynamic model of communication. The dynamic model of communication, however, does not only mean the exchange of information between employees, but primarily teaches each individual individually. First of all, we have to learn to communicate with ourselves and organize a project on a weekday, only then can we start to encourage the flow of information between employees and establish a project approach at the level of the entire municipal administration. However, we can organize a working day as a project only when we have mastered the basics of planning activities.

As part of the project approach, each individual must plan their daily, weekly and monthly activities. In daily planning, we define the activities we need to perform for the next day. This is best done at the end of the workday. The next working day, in the morning, we first review the list of tasks that we tackle by priority. Of course, such a list is not constant and will be updated throughout the day. The purpose of daily planning is not to forget about tasks and to stick to deadlines. We repeat the same process of daily planning every working day. Once employees master daily planning, then they embark on weekly planning. This, in turn, requires greater concentration and detailed knowledge of the “rhythm” of the workplace. However, if the employee has previously done daily planning, then he will not have any problems on a weekly basis. Based on the daily plans, at the end of the week we set a weekly plan for the week that follows. The weekly plan includes key tasks that can be planned in advance according to the content of the job. At the beginning of the week, the employee checks their weekly activities, coordinates them and possibly complements them. At the end of the week, he has to check whether he has carried out all the planned activities, or to reschedule them to the next week. When an employee wins weekly planning, he embarks on a monthly one. He refocuses on weekly plans, extracts recurring tasks, and sets a monthly plan at the beginning of the month, in which he introduces activities that are time-bound to the planning month. At the end of the month, a review of monthly activities follows. In this way, the employee checks himself and at the same time takes responsibility for his work.

If we organize the municipal administration as a project office, we can structurally imagine that the director of the municipal administration is in the role of Head of the project office, and below him are the project managers. Project managers draw on human resources and various organizational units (departments / services) to carry out and manage projects. When it comes to development projects, then project managers are councilors, and in the case of procedural tasks assigned by the state, project managers are heads of departments. This is a way for the entire municipal administration to start operating as a project, ie in the form of a project office. The same approach to project organization of work must be taken by all public institutes / agencies under the auspices of the municipality. Each segment (municipal administration, public institutes / agencies) operates on a project basis, but the municipality as a whole must also operate on a project basis. This means that at a higher level it is necessary to establish coordination between the municipal administration and all public institutions within the municipality. The municipality as a whole is organized by the project when the mayor, as the head of the umbrella project office in the municipality, takes care of the coordination of institutions under the auspices of the municipality and the municipal administration. Such an approach enables mutual cooperation on projects and joint drawing of human resources. Namely, the municipal administration as well as public institutes and public agencies within the municipality are going towards the same goal, so combining human resources on joint projects of the municipality is optimal.

Mayor at the head of the Leading Project Office in the municipality!

As we mentioned at the beginning, the mayor is a representative of the people, and the municipal administration and all other institutions under the auspices of the municipality (JZ, JA) are operational to achieve strategic goals. Thus, the role of the mayor is to establish a balance between the set strategic goals of the municipality and the available human, financial, material and technological resources (see Figure 6), which is easiest to establish if the entire municipality acts as an umbrella project office.

Občina kot projektna pisarna - Milan Krajnc
Figure 5: Municipality as an leading project office
LITERATURE:

1. HAUC, Gregor, KRAJNC PAVLICA, Milan. Strategic goals – how to check if we are on the right track ?. In: PALČIČ, Iztok, editor (s). Project Forum 2007, Podčetrtek, 13-15. June 2007. Project Excellence: A Collection of Lectures. Ljubljana: Slovenian Association for Project Management, 2007, p. 229-234. [COBISS.SI-ID 20641592]
2. KRAJNC PAVLICA, Milan. Project management at public institutions. Project Office, Aug. 25 2005, vol. 1, no. 9. [COBISS.SI-ID 20838456]
3. KRAJNC PAVLICA, Milan. Demanding reorganization: project management and personal project office. Business Assistance, May 2006, Vol. 1, no. 2, p. 12-15, ill., Tables. [COBISS.SI-ID 20672056]
4. KRAJNC PAVLICA, Milan. What is a project office? : for only a percentage of respondents, this is the way of working. Business Assistance, May 2006, Vol. 1, no. 2, p. 19-22, ill. [COBISS.SI-ID 20673080]
4. KRAJNC PAVLICA, Milan. The impact of personal goals on project progress. Proj. network Slov., jun. 2006, vol. 9, no. 2, p. 30-33. [COBISS.SI-ID 16363750]
5. KRAJNC PAVLICA, Milan. A project like a stage: “We have to live life and not play!”. Project office, 25 February. 2006, vol. 2, no. 4. [COBISS.SI-ID 20834616]
7. KRAJNC PAVLICA, Milan, KRAJNC PAVLICA, Simona, JANC, Andreja. How to make changes in the work process. Entrepreneur. [Printed ed.], Oct. 2007, vol. 16, no. [9], p. 42-43, fig. [COBISS.SI-ID 20642616]
8. KRAJNC PAVLICA, Milan, KRAJNC PAVLICA, Simona. The goal – for someone who knows where he is sailing, the wind is always favorable. In: PALČIČ, Iztok, editor (s). Project Forum 2007, Podčetrtek, 13-15. June 2007. Project Excellence: A Collection of Lectures. Ljubljana: Slovenian Association for Project Management, 2007, p. 124-129. [COBISS.SI-ID 20641336]
8. KRAJNC PAVLICA, Milan. Reorganization of the work process with the help of project management, with an emphasis on accepting responsibility for human resources. In: STARE, Aljaž, editor (s). Project Forum of the Slovenian Association for Project Management 2005, Otočec, 9 and 10 June 2005. With projects to a higher value! : collection of lectures. Ljubljana: Slovenian Association for Project Management, 2005, p. 195-200. [COBISS.SI-ID 20640056]
10. KRAJNC PAVLICA, Milan. A director’s childhood affects running a business (a company in crisis can be saved by a psychotherapist, not just an economist). Kairos, 2007, vol. 1, no. 1/2, p. 145. [COBISS.SI-ID 20640568]
10. KRAJNC PAVLICA, Milan. The effect of personal objectives on the project objectives. In: SEMOLIČ, Brane (ed.), KERIN, Andrej (ed.), STARE, Aljaž (ed.). Book of abstracts and congress program. Ljubljana: ZPM Slovenian Project Management Association: = ZPM Slovenian Project Management Association, 2006, p. 32. [COBISS.SI-ID 20641080]
12. VILFAN, Joze, KRAJNC PAVLICA, Milan. New paradigm for the Lisbon Strategy. V: Proceedings. Nova Gorica: Mestna občina: Slovenian Business & Research Association, 2005, p. 1-8, fig. [COBISS.SI-ID 20644664]

Sources:

13. Personal experience as a member of the Finance Committee in the Ptuj Municipality from 2004 to 2008 (Milan Krajnc Pavlica)
14. Professional experience, analysis of the work process in more than 50 Slovenian municipalities
15. Editor of the e-journal Project Office ISSN 1854-1240 (Milan Krajnc Pavlica)

Avtor - Milan Krajnc

Author of the article: Milan Krajnc, pedagogue, entrepreneur & crisis manager
I teach you to look “at yourself” as a third person. For more information or an introductory meeting, write to me at official@milankrajnc.com

Information project office - Milan Krajnc
CategoriesLatest posts

Office for information projects

The information system must provide all data in one place and must not duplicate work. Such information systems are expensive, so we can also use partial solutions or simple web applications, which we turn into intranets. In this way we mainly connect data from different programs and combine them in one place. It must allow delegation of tasks from one place and an overview by projects. It is
important that the information environment is user-friendly and above all easy to use.

Especially project work can lead to more administrative work. For the security of the project, things must be recorded and reported on a regular basis. This is the most common reason why project management is rarely brought to life. But administrative hurdles can be overcome with a good information system.

The information system is only a support for project work. We do not start the implementation until we have a strategy, a complete organization chart and an analysis of the knowledge of computer science and information technology of all those who will use the information system.

Before we decide on a new information system, we should carry out an analysis of the old system and see what really makes it possible. Only when we find that it is not suitable do we start to look for new possibilities. We must be very careful about the possibility of data transfer, as this can be the biggest obstacle to changing the way we work – no data should be lost or changed.

What do we expect from the information system?

The information system, which we call the project office, must enable us to link all data together. Above all, it should simplify work and rationalize costs and time. It must function as an intranet and extranet, making it possible to work remotely. It must contain all the programs that the company has used up to now: from the financial accounting and marketing program to the reception book, warehouse, etc.

What is a project office? Milan Krajnc

The basis of the information system as a project office must be the business plan of the company.
Every order must be treated like a project, i.e. by clicking on it we see its entire history: all information
about the client and the contractors. All documents in electronic form, news, financial reports and all
activities that have been or will be performed must be attached.

You should communicate directly with the client through the information system (depending on the type of activity) and have an overview of the occupancy of all employees. The system must therefore also contain a common calendar. All documents required by the employees for a smooth work, as well as descriptions of the procedures, the occupancy of the premises and the cars / working machines must be attached. At the same time, it has to inform us about critical paths, missed tasks, traffic jams and similar particularities. In short – the information system must provide all data in one place and must not duplicate work. In all this we must also think about safety, although this can cause some
problems, especially when working from a distance.

Information project office - Milan Krajnc

Such information systems are expensive, so we can also use partial solutions or simple web applications, which we turn into intranets. In this way we mainly combine data from different programs and combine them in one place. It must allow the delegation of tasks from one place and an overview by project. It is important that the information environment is user-friendly and above all easy to use.

If the project offices are not used by everyone involved, the system will not deliver the desired results. However, this can have fatal consequences for the analyzes and reports that are available to management at all times. It is therefore important that the implementation of information solutions does not begin until the project management program is fully prepared.

Avtor - Milan Krajnc
Author of the article: Milan Krajnc, pedagogue, entrepreneur & crisis manager I teach you to look “at yourself” as a third person. For more information or an introductory meeting, write to me at official@milankrajnc.com

Fill out the form bellow to get the free e-book

Fulfilling children's dreams - Milan Krajnc
CategoriesLatest posts

The fulfillment of childrens’s dreams

Many people come to me because they have lost the meaning of life, they do not find a goal, they donot know what to do…

My task is to find the meaning of life in them and help them to find a meaning in this life.

– Milan Krajnc –

Blog - Milan Krajnc

Of course, I do not set them a goal, but only guide them along the way.

Because when we are born into this world, we are born with a goal, but through education and
different life situations we lose this memory.

I remember my dreams very well, even if I have lost them in some circle… but now I just follow the way
I feel and these dreams come towards me, I do not do anything faster, I just let go and take steps as I
feel..

As a child I knew that I would connect the visible and the invisible world, that I would give meaning to the unknown.

When I was 10 years old I carried books about space home, wrote seminar papers on lasers in primary
school, had a laboratory at home and mixed soaps that smelled bad, sailed under metallurgists,
studied physics, specialized in psychotherapy, lectured on project management at the university,
became a master of Reiki, theta healing… and all sorts of… and now suddenly all this knowledge helps
me to discover the potential of people and places… Basically hidden potentials are these wonders that
are just forgotten knowledge and everyone of us has them within us.

Already in 2003 I started among other things with the reorganization of communities, because I quickly realized that they had a fundamental problem… Mayor, everyone came from their own history and was responsible for several thousand people at once, namely that each of his decisions could have fatal consequences for their future. That is why I founded the Mayor’s Academy, where they slowly came and were interested in how they could lead the community differently. This was followed by the development of municipal strategies based on their potential. This is how the scale of Municipal Development Potential was born, which we have been publishing for all of Europe at SE since 2006. Namely, if Europe wants to develop, it must do so with its roots, the local communities, giving them only one incentive to develop their potential. Even then, I saw that it was enough for me to go around the place and see what their potential is and what is unused or where they are making a mistake. So I already developed Dynamic Model for the management of Public Administration, which will only see
the light of day at the end of this year in the form of a book.

But now, when I set up different educational programs in different places, I see that I know how to connect the potentials of the environment and people with each other… so that I can make the invisible part visible.

Fill out the form bellow to get the free e-book

Every place holds a secret, a forgotten history and every human being has a part of this history within himself… now these voices are awakening and everyone who awakens hears the call of this place… the time has come when Warriors Awaken, when the fighters return home from the fighting.

So my dreams have finally come true, and I am living them to the fullest.

Your time has come too!

Avtor - Milan Krajnc
Author of the article: Milan Krajnc, pedagogue, entrepreneur & crisis manager I teach you to look “at yourself” as a third person. For more information or an introductory meeting, write to me at official@milankrajnc.com
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